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Lovaye Kajiura

WEEK 7 TERMINOLOGY IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Albinism – a recessive hereditary caused by defective alleles of the genes that encode the enzymes required for the synthesis of melanin Allele – one of several alternative forms of a particular gene Autosome – a chromosome that occurs in homologous pairs in both males and females and that does not beat the genes determining sex Carrier – an individual who is heterozygous for a recessive condition; a carrier displays the dominant phenotype but can pass on the recessive allele to offspring Codominance – the relation between two alleles are phenotypically expressed in heterozygous individuals Cross fertilization – the union of sperm and egg from two individuals of the same species Dominant – an allele that can determine the phenotype of heterozygotes completely such that they are indistinguishable from individuals homozygotes for the allele; in the heterozygotes, the expression of the other (recessive) allele is completely masked Down Syndrome -a genetic disorder caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21; common characteristics include learning disabilities, distinctively shaped eyelids, a small mouth, heart defects and low resistance to infectious diseases; also called trisomy 21 Gene – the unit of heredity; a segment of DNAlocated at a particular place on a chromosome that usually encodes the information for the amino acid sequence of a protein and hence a particular trait Gene linkage – the tendency of genes located on the same chromosome to be inherited together Genetic recombination – the generation of new combinations of alleles on homologous chromosomes due to the exchange of DNAduring crossing over Genotype hemophilia - Heterozygous – carrying two different alleles of a given gene; also called hybrid Huntington disease – an incurable genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele that produces progressive brain deterioration, resulting in the loss of motor coordination, flailing movements, personality disturbances and eventual death Incomplete dominance – a pattern of inheritance in which the heterozygous phenotype in intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes Inheritance – the genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring Jacob syndrome – a set of characteristics typical of human males possessing one X and two Y chromosomes (XYY); most XYY males are phenotypically normal but XYY males tend to be taller than average and to have a slightly increased risk of learning disabilities Klinefelter syndrom – a set of characteristics typically found in ind
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