BIOLOGY 1M03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Transfer Rna, Ovarian Cancer, Ribose

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KEY POINTS:
protein sequences are typically read from amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus
When nucleotide polymerize to form a nucleic acid: a hydrogen bond forms between the sugars of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the
second
Franklin and Wilkins analyzed DNA by bombarding DNA crystals and X - rays. Their analysis yielded two numbers that sparked interest,
3.4nm and 0.34nm. These numbers tell us there are 10 rungs, or steps, on the DNA ladder for every turn of the helix
Phosphodiester bonds connect nucleotides
NUCLEOTIDE
Structure
How is structure formed?
Function + Sig
Is the monomer of nucleic acids
Consists of phosphate group + a pentose
sugar + nitrogenous base.
Nitrogenous base is attached to C1
Phosphate group at C5
C3 OH is involved in bonding with the next
nucleotide
Lipid zones are recognized by receptor
Formed by phosphodiester linkage between -C-O-P-O-C
C3 - C5 bond
DNA and RNA are
polynucleotides
There is a strong
consensus that if
ribonucleotides
and
deoxyribonucleotid
es were able to
form during
chemical evolution,
they would be able
to polymerize and
form RNA and DNA
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NUCLEIC ACIDS
Structure
How is structure formed?
Function
Nucleic acids are polymers
just like proteins.
Monomer of nucleic acid:
nucleotide
Contains a sugar - phosphate
spine: this backbone is
directional
Via polymerization
Nucleic acids allow organisms to transfer genetic information
from one generation to the next. There are two types of
nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA
and ribonucleic acid, better known as RNA.
DNA
Structure
How is structure formed?
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Document Summary

Protein sequences are typically read from amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus. When nucleotide polymerize to form a nucleic acid: a hydrogen bond forms between the sugars of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the second. Franklin and wilkins analyzed dna by bombarding dna crystals and x - rays. Their analysis yielded two numbers that sparked interest, These numbers tell us there are 10 rungs, or steps, on the dna ladder for every turn of the helix. Consists of phosphate group + a pentose sugar + nitrogenous base. C3 oh is involved in bonding with the next nucleotide. There is a strong consensus that if ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotid es were able to form during chemical evolution, they would be able to polymerize and form rna and dna. Contains a sugar - phosphate spine: this backbone is directional. Nucleic acids allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.

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