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Chapter 1

BIOLOGY 1M03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Cell Membrane, Louis Pasteur, Growth Medium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1 Biology and the Tree of Life
Key Concepts
1) Biological science founded on 2 theories
a. Cell Theory – all organisms are made up of cells and all cells come from
pre-existing cells
b. Evolution through Natural Selection – species change throughout time
because of variance in heritable traits, causing some individuals with
favorable hereditable traits to produce more offspring
2) Phylogenic tree is a graphical representation of evolutionary relationships
among species
a. Relationships are estimated by analyzing differences and similarities in
traits (you can tell which species is closer in terms of evolution by
variances in certain traits)
3) Biologists ask questions, generate an hypothesis to answer the question, make
a prediction, and design a experiment to test the prediction
Theory – an explanation for a very general class of phenomenal (explanation for why
something occurs)
- Theories contain 2 parts,
oThe first describes a pattern in the natural world
oThe Second, explains the mechanism responsible for creating the
pattern
1.1 The Cell Theory
- 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope (30x) to examine cork structure
- Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, developed a more powerful microscope
oInspected pond water, and made observation of paramecium
Are all Organisms made up of cells?
- All organisms are made up of cells
-Cell: highly organized compartment, bounded by a thin plasma membrane that
contains in an aqueous solution.
Where do cells come from?
- Rudolph Virchow, explained the 2nd part of the theory by stating that all
organisms are made up of cells, and all cells arise from preexisting cells
- His claim was contradictory to the spontaneous generation theory
-Louis Pasteur tested the spontaneous generation hypothesis
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