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Chapter 1

BIOLOGY 1M03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Multicellular Organism, Speciation, Phylogenetic Tree

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Jon Stone

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Bio 1M03 Thursday, September 8th, 2016
Chapter 1
Key Concepts:
-What is life?
-Cell theory
-Evolution by natural selection
-phylogenetic trees
-questions, observations, hypotheses
1.1 What it means to be alive
-Energy: Acquire and use energy
-Cells: Made up of one or more cells. Cell’s membranes regulate the passage of material
between exterior and interior spaces
-Information: lLiving organisms posses hereditary or genetic information encoded in genes in
addition to information acquired from their environment.
-Replication: Pass on genetic information to the next generation
-Evolution: Organisms are the product of collective population evolution
1.2 The Cell Theory
Cell: A highly organized compartment, bound by a thin, flexible structure called a plasma
membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution.
Scientific Theories: Comprise of -Patterns observed in the natural world
-mechanisms or processes proposed to produce patterns
Hypothesis: a proposal
Prediction: something that can be measure to prove a hypothesis correct
Cell Theory: All organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from pre-existing cells. The cell
is the fundamental structural unit in all organisms
Louis Pasteur Experiment ( Spontaneous vs Cells-from-cells):
a)Straight neck bottle allowed for cells to appear in both
b)Swan neck bottle trapped incoming cells, there were no cells in the broth, therefor proving that
cells do not generate spontaneously
(insert picture)
-all individuals of single celled organisms are related by common ancestry
-In a multicellular organism, all of the cells present descend from preexisting cells and are
connected by common ancestry
1.3 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Evolution: All Species are related by common ancestry and have changed over time in
response to natural selection. (as a population)
Natural Selection: The process by which Darwinian evolution occurs (Individuals)
1)Individuals within a population a variable, hereditary characteristics
2)Certain traits give an edge to individuals possessing them, giving these individuals a better
chance at surviving and passing on these characteristics
-Heritable: traits that can be passed on
-Population:a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
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