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Chapter 21

BIOLOGY 2F03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 21: Fractal, Landscape Ecology, Habitat Fragmentation


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 2F03
Professor
D R.Kajura
Chapter
21

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Chapter 21
Landscape Ecology
Landscape is a heterogeneous area consisting of distinctive patches which is a
which is referred to as landscape elements- organized into a mosaic-like pattern
Landscape ecology: as the study of the relationship between spatial patterns and
ecological processes over a range of scales
Landscape structure
Landscape ecology, as the study of the relationship between spatial pattern and
ecological process
Landscape structure includes the size, shape and composition, number and
position of patches, or landscape elements, in a landscape.
Landscape structure consists of size, shape, composition, number and position of
patches, or landscape elements within a landscape
Landscape structure consist mainly of the size, shape, composition number and
position of patches or landscape elements, within a landscape
Patch, as a relatively homogenous area that differs from its surrounding
Matrix, the background of a landscape mosaic
Structure of Six Landscapes in Ohio
Some of the landscapes are well forested
Patch shape can be quantified by the ratio of patch perimeter to the perimeter of a
circle within a small area equal to that of the patch
If S is equal to one, the patch is approximately circular
Increasing values of S indicate elongate patches and a long perimeter relative to
are
Fractal geometry can be used to quantify the structure of the complex natural
shapes
Used to provide method for describing the dimensions of natural objects, ferns
and snowflakes
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The fractal geometry of Landscapes
Using a larger ruler to measure the landscape will lead to smaller estimates
because you miss the “nooks and crannies” an area may possess
These small features would be represented by estimates made with smaller rulers
A barnacle requires only about 2 cm of coastline were as a bald eagles territory
are about .782 km apart
Looking at the coastline through the perspectives of various species and the
amount of land required for their development
Landscape processes
Structure influences processes such as the flow of energy, materials and species
across a landscape
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look at how size, shape, composition number and position affect landscape
processes
Landscape and the dispersal of Mammals
The landscape structure, size number and isolation of habitat patches can
influence the movement of organisms between suitable habitats
The movement of subpopulation of mountain calfs can affect persistence of a
species in a landscape
Humans create habit fragmentation
Look at how landscape structure effects the movement of organisms
Predicted that animals would move farther in the more fragmented landscape
consisting of smaller habitat patches
In these landscapes animals move further to find mates, food and cover
Predicted that the proportion of animals moving would decrease with habitat
fragmentation
looked at rodent populations and expressed movements as mean square distances,
a measurement that estimates the size of an individuals home range (distance used
on a daily basis)
The smaller animals move further in the more fragmented landscapes
Those living in small patches moved farther than those in medium or large
patches
Movements decrease with fragmentation
The experiment shows the predictable relationship between landscape structure
and the movement of organisms across landscapes
Local population density of butterfly was affected by the isolation of habitat
patches
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