The aim is to develop the cognitive habits of what lendol calder calls historical mindedness : Questioning, connecting, sourcing, making inferences, considering alternate perspectives, and recognizing the limits to one"s knowledge . Historical mindedness means an awareness of how change takes place over time and an appreciation for the ways in which political, social, and economic forces influence people and events. The interpretations of facts are up for debate. Give the big context/ summary at lower levels. Week 2: what is communications/ media history emily. Communication studies as a topic is interdisciplinary in nature. Can overlap with several diff topics of study. Why were universities formed? knowledge/power: state & church academic freedom broad training vs. professionalism. Professionalism: students trivium: grammar, rhetoric and logic quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, astrology (science) enlightenment, 18c. Preserve knowledge, educating elites vs. new knowledge turn to science makes an interest in universities becoming generators of new knowledge .