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Chapter 5

COMMERCE 1BA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Social Comparison Theory, Motivation, Self-Actualization

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Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation
Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal
Intrinsic motivation is motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task;
it is usually self-applied
Extrinsic motivation is motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually
applied by others
Self-determination theory is a theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is
autonomous or controlled
Autonomous motivation is when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
Controlled motivation is when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward
Performance is the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the
General cognitive ability is a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources
Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and
oFour-branch model of EI:
Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
Using emotions to facilitate thinking
Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions
Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
Needs  Behavior  Incentives and goals
Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under
which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
oFive-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need
has the greatest motivating potential
o1. Physiological needs
o2. Safety needs
o3. Belongingness needs
o4. Esteem needs
o5. Self-actualization needs
oA satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
oA three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for
movement up and down the hierarchy
oTwo major motivational premises:
The more lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired
The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level need satisfaction is desired
McClelland’s Theory of Needs:
oA nonhierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs
result in particular patterns of motivation
oNeed for achievement is a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well
oThese individuals exhibit the following:
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