Human Resources – Chapter 5: Recruitment and Selection
The HR Recruitment Process
The role of HR recruitment is to build a supply of potential new hires that the organization can
draw on if the need arises.
Human Resource Recruitment is any practice or activity carried on by the organization with
the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees.
Recruitment activities are designed to affect: 1) the number of people who apply for vacancies,
2) the type of people who apply for them, and/or 3) the likelihood that those applying for
vacancies will accept positions if offered.
All companies have to make decisions in three areas of recruiting: 1) personnel policies, which
affect the kinds of jobs the company has to offer, 2) recruitment sources used to solicit
applicants, which affect the kinds of people who apply and 3) the characteristics and behaviors of
Human resource policies (aka personnel policies) is a generic term used to refer to organizational
decisions that affect the nature of the vacancies for which people are recruited. The
characteristics of the vacancy are more important than recruiters or recruiting sources when it
comes to predicting job choice decisions.
Internal Vs. External Recruiting: Job Security
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
Companies that take a “lead-the-market” approach to pay – a policy of paying higher than
current market wages – have a distinct advantage in recruiting.
It is important for companies in highly competitive labor markets.
Organizations need to take three important steps to build an employment brand: 1) define the
target audience, 2) develop a set of reason why the organization is more attractive to that
audience than other organizations, and 3) incorporate those reasons into all recruitment efforts
and the organization’s career website.
Internal Vs. External Sources
Relying on internal sources offers a company several advantages: it generates a sample of
applicants who are well known to the firm, these applicants are relatively knowledgeable about
the company’s vacancies, and it generally is cheaper and faster to fill vacancies internally.
However, bringing in outsiders may expose the organization to new ideas or new ways of doing
Direct Applicants and Referrals
Direct applicants are people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from the organization. Referrals are people who are prompted to apply by someone within the organization.
Many direct applicants are to some extent already “sold” on the organization. They have done
homework about the company, self-selection.
In the war for talent, some employers that try to entice one new employee from a competitor will
often try to leverage that one person to try to entice even more people away. The term “lift-out”
has been coined for this practice of trying to recruit a whole team of people
Advertisements in Newspapers and Periodicals
The classified section of local newspapers is a commonly used medium.
Public and Private Employment Agencies
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) helps unemployed Canadians find
work through its online Job Bank, located on the Service Canada website. It is a free public
service allowing employers and job seekers to connect online.
Public employment agencies such as the HRSDC’s Job Bank serve primarily the blue0collar
labor market; private employment agencies perform much the same service for the white-collar
labor market. However, private charge the organization for the referrals.
One type of private employment agency is the executive search firm (ESF). These agencies are
often referred to as headhunters.
Colleges and Universities
Evaluating the Quality of a Source
Yield ratios express the percentage of applicants who successfully move from one stage of the
recruitment and selection process to the next.
The recruiter often gets involved late in the process. Recruiters’characteristics and behaviors
seem to have less impact on applicants’job choices than we might expect.
Recruiter’s Functional Area – Some studies indicate that applicants find a job less attractive and
the recruiter less credible when he is an HRM specialist.
Recruiter’s Traits – Two traits stand out when applicants’reactions to recruiters are examined –
“warmth” and “informativeness”.
Enhancing Recruiter Impact – Recruiters do not have much influence on job choice, but they can
have an impact. Recruiters can provide timely feedback. Recruiting can be done in teams rather
than by individuals.
The Selection Process
The recruitment process is complete once an adequate pool of qualified candidates have applied
for the organization’s vacant position(s).
Selection is the process by which an organization attempts to identify applicants with the
necessary knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that will help it achieve its goals. Selection Method Standards
Several generic standards should be met in any selection process. We focus on 5: Reliability,
Validity, Generalizability, Utility and Legality.
Reliability – the degree to which a performance measure is free from random error. The
consistency of a performance measure.
It refers to the measuring instrument (a ruler versus a visual guess) rather than to the
Validity is the extent to which a performance measure is related to performance on the job.A
measure must be reliable if it is to have any validity.
Criterion-Related Validity is a method of establishing the validity of a personnel selection
method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores.
Criterion-related validity studies come in two varieties.
Predictive Validation is a study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between
applicants’test scores and their eventual performance on the job.
Concurrent Validation is a study in which a test is administered to all the people currently in a
job and then incumbents’scores are correlated with existing measures of their performance on
Despite the extra effort and time needed for predictive validation, it is superior to concurrent