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Chapter 2

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Earth Sciences

Chapter 2: water 2ww3  Countries with the lowest per capita water resources are generally those where nature provides the least  Of the tio 20 best-resourced nations, 9 have significant ice, and snow-melt resources , the rest have humid tropical climates, some have both and Greenland tops the list  Greater the population, the more to suffer from serious water resource issues Water scarce- less than 1000m3éperson Recent Trends  More than half of the 20 nations experiencing the greatest reduction in resources overth last 5 decades are also in regions of water scarcity  Greatest reduction in resources is experienced by mostly MENA region  Europe is one of the greatest consumers of virtual water from the rest of the world The effect of dams  Divide the average annual net water balance by population size  Russian hydorpgoist--- M.I.Lvovich made calculations based ond that the main objective of building dams is to harness floodwaters and transform a potential hazard into a potential resource  In table, the column covering stable per capita runoff without extra capacity shows the effects population growth would have had on per capita resources if no dams had been built  Table shows that North America has nearly doubled per capita resources by building dams Estimating future water withdrawals  The global water use model WaterGAP has been used to estimate the changes in annual water withdrawals up to 2025  WaterGAP provides a framework for taking into account the impact of key demographic, economic , technological, climatic and other driving forces on the future of the world’s water uses  Total water withdrawals= total volume of water extracted from surface or subsurface sources for various uses  The A2 scenario assumes hat trends in population and economy are consistent with an economically oriented world but with a lower level of integration Rising Population and growing cities  Largest simple cause of the water crisis- the growing world population  Population in middle east( Arab) –has fasted growth rate
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