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Chapter 8

History - Chapter 8, 13 & 22 Notes.docx

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Bonny Ibhawoh

CHAPTER EIGHT – WORLD WAR I The Opening Phase of the War  War was very popular  People were very enthusiastic about participating  Thought it would be a short war (would be home before fall) Schlieffen Plan  Germans put most of troops against France  Assigned limited forces to hold off Russians  Germans wanted to encircle the French  German armies moved forward all through August  Were about to reach Paris by September were having problems: o Supplies were lagging behind because horses were slow o Size of German force made it hard for commander to coordinate them  Allies rushed to Paris with a series of counterattacks  Germans decided to pull back to the Aisne River  Both sides extended battle line to sea coast  October 1914: trench system was 450 miles long across Belgium and France Germans Fail in France – But Win in Prussia  Russians attacked German forces on Prussian frontier  Germans already in East Prussia defeated Russian army at Tannenberg and at Masurian Lakes  Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria also joined Germany and Austria-Hungary  Four were called Central Powers and opposition was Allies The Period of Stalemate Stalemate on Both Eastern and Western Fronts  1915: Italy attacked Austria because British and French promised them Austrian and Ottoman territory  Allies tried to defeat Ottoman Empire and open water route to supply Russia but failed  German, Austrian and Bulgarian troops overran Serbia  Germans conquered Poland and Lithuania in Russia  1916: German, Austrian, Bulgarian forces overran Romania  Russians entered eastern Romania to prevent invasion of southern Russia  Germans did not have enough forces to launch invasion  Eastern front also became a stalemate The War Outside Europe  Africa: o Allied colonial troops captured German colonies o Most of German Southwest Africa was overrun o Small German force remained in East Africa till end of war Japan Expands its Power in the Pacific and Asia  Japan: o Declared war on Germany o Japanese and British cleared German forces from China o Used war to advance imperialist Designs on China o Presented Twenty-One Demands to Chinese government o Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, US backed Japan on wanting to take over China o China joined the war on the side of the Allies The British are First Repulsed and Then Triumphant in West Asia  Ottoman Empire was first able to defend themselves in West Asian territories  1917: British and ANZAC (Australia and New Zealand) forces were able to fully take over Middle East  Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, South African units fought with British troops in Europe and Middle East  P. 108: “The presence in Europe of personnel from other continents was a forewarning of the decline of European global power during the twentieth century” …what? The War of Attrition Becomes Total War  Trenches, machine guns, etc. dominated front lines.  Was impossible to achieve breakthrough of the enemy  Both sides kept trying resulting in no progress but massive casualties Total War  Each government had to mobilize all its resources  Civilian population and military forces became more blended together  Governments became more controlling over lives of their people The War on Land Battlefield Misery  Commanders began to settle for killing more of enemies men than their own  War became more about killing than about breakthroughs  Men also died from: sniper fire, frontline patrols, random mortar fire, disease, exposure and soiled/adulterated rations  Lived in horrible conditions: rats, lice, mud The Advent of the Airplane and the Tank Suggests a Breakthrough in the Stalemate  Each side invented new weapons to overcome stalemate  Used airplanes and dirigibles for observation and attack  Airplanes also targeted civilian population  Tanks also used to break through trenches The War at Sea Britain Blockades Germany with Mines  Germany and Great Britain were dependent on overseas sources of raw materials and food  Great Britain seized all merchant sips carrying contraband for Germany  Germans developed submarine to fight back Germany Blockades British with Submarines  1915: German U-boats destroyed shipping to Great Britain  British reaction: o Arm merchant ships o Have merchant ships ram submarines o Send war supplies and soldiers on passenger liners o Fly flags of neutral nations o Register British ships under foreign governments  Germans sunk ships without warning, killing many  Threats from US government caused Germany to restrict aggressiveness of submarines The War at Home The Home Front Incorporates Civilians Into the War  Nations had to create a new war front (“home front”)  All men were taken from their homes to fight in the war (even teenagers, elderly and marginally disabled) Women Replace Men in Many Hitherto Male Occupations  Women recruited for labour in factories, offices, farms  Adolescents started to work in industry  Governments took control of production of industrial raw materials  Financed research, development and production of substitutes when materials ran low  Citizens helped by: o Working overtime o Planting gardens o Investing in government bonds o Would fast and go without meat o Watch for spies and saboteurs The Break in the Stalemate Germans Resume Submarine Blockade of Britain  Winter of 1916-1917: o German morale weakening under British blockade o German population experiencing deprivation o Got approval to resume submarine warfare o Submarines were very effective  April: British had no industrial raw materials and only six weeks worth of food left  US declared war on Germany  Germans knew this would happen when they resumed submarine warfare  Did not see US as a threat U.S. and British Navies Combine to Crush the German Submarine Blockade  US navy was ready to deal with submarines  British and US had antisubmarine weapons (depth charges, hydrophone detectors)  Sank submarines allowing merchant ships to get through  German U-boat offensive had failed Tsarist Government Collapses; Bolsheviks Sue for Peace  Germans thought they could defeat Russians  Government of tsar was first casualty of the war of attrition  Civilians and soldiers drove Tsar Nicholas from power  New government could not handle war  Bolsheviks seized power and began negotiations for peace  1918: Russia signed peace treaty with Germany and dropped out of war Germans Attack; US Troops and Supplies Reach France; Allies Counterattack  March 1918: o Germans used “shock troops” to find and penetrate weak spots in enemy line o Broke main British and French positions and drove Allies back  Germans got close to Paris again  Again were unable to keep momentum and began losing troops  British troops counterattack and push German army out of France The Ending of the War Wilson Proposes Fourteen Points to Shape the Peace  Wilson brought forth peace plan in January 1918 (Fourteen Points) o First goal: prevent future wars by eliminating practices that caused current war (trade barriers, interference with freedom of the seas, secret diplomacy, colonial tensions, arms races) o Second goal: aimed at settling problems in Europe o Third goal (most important): League of Nations to preserve peace in the future  Allies eventually agreed Social Revolution and Military Defeat Force Germany to the Peace Table  German republic arrived in France ready to sign a cease-fire  Allies had additional items: o Must withdraw army to east bank of Rhine o Surrender surface fleet, submarines, air force, machine guns, artillery and motorized transport o Make amends for damages to civilians and occupied territories  German representative signed  November 11, 1918: World War I was over Human and Economic Cost of World War I  10 million men lost lives  Direct cost of the war: $180 billion  Indirect cost of the war $150 billion more CHAPTER THIRTEEN – EAST ASIA BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS War and Revolution in China: From Dynasty to Republic Manchus Attempt 11 Hour Reforms  Humiliation of Boxers shattered authority of Manchu dynasty  Imperial government wanted to win popular support  Approved lots of proposals for change o Ex. mission to Europe and US to study their governments o Ex. new educational policy for Western-style schools  Merchants and industrialists in port cities opposed Manchu dynasty  Signed treaties with Western nations that gave foreign goods advantage over Chinese goods  Western-educated students wanted modernization opposed dynasty as well Sun Yat-Sen Leads Anti-Dynastic forces  Sun Yat-Sen was leader of anti-dynastic forces  Sun’s ideology showed Western and political influence  Made the Three People’s Principles: 1. Nationalism: overthrow of Manchus (minority ethnic-cultural group in China) and recovery of China’s rights from imperialists 2. Democracy: liberal republic in which people would be sovereign through representative government 3. Livelihood: industrial socialism and land reform would ensure cultivators owned their land  1905: organized group of people into political party  Party was called Kuomintang (National People’s Party/KMT)  Tried 11 times to overthrow Manchus  Sun was elected provisional president of Chinese Republic after 11th Republic of China Established in 1912  Manchus were not prepared to fight revolutionaries  General Tuan Shih-k’ai defeated revolutionaries  Bargained for settlement that would satisfy his ambitions  Sun resigned presidency for Yuan Shih-k’ai’s promise to support Chinese Republic The Era of Warlordism  Sun’s followers were happy with overthrow of Manchus  Did not want to fight for his other ideals  Yuan Shih-k’ai tried to
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