LIFESCI 2D03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Max Wolf, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Pheromone

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-phenotype- observed traits
-genotype- alleles of an individual
-individual’s behavior or behavioral phenotypic value is based off:
othe environment
o gene environment interactions
-researchers noted that many laboratory strains of mice and rats often exhibited consistent
difference in behavior (Yerkes 1913)
odifferences results from genotypes
-other evidence came from studies of instincts
obehaviors that are performed the same way each time, are fully expressed the first
time they are exhibited and are present even in individuals raised isolation
-Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen described many innate behaviors such as in adult
graylag geese
oLay their eggs in nests on the ground, will extend their neck and use their bill to
gently roll displaced eggs back into the nest in very fixed manner.
o Tinbergen also examined that innate escape response of newly hatched gosling
he saw that when predators were observed, they always responded by
assuming a crouching position or running away.
This is called a fixed action pattern (behaviors that are invariant
and unlearned).
Behavioral differences between wild type and mutant type fruit flies
-John Paul Scott and Margaret Bastock studied drosophilia melanogaster
oDirect evidence of a genetic influence on behavior
-Bastock studied the behavioral differences between wild type and mutant form
-Mutant fly was identified as “yellow” compared to normal grey color
-Why aren’t yellow more common wondered bastock?
oWondered whether the gene mutation in yellow might induce a behavioral change
that resulted in low reprod. Success
oBastock interbred wild type and yellow flies for 7 generations
oFound similar genome expect : the “yellow” gene was different
oMated wild type males and females and found that they mated faster than yellow
oConcluded that important difference in courtship behavior resulted in the
observed differences in the mating success of yellow individuals: females mate
less with males that produced weak courtship songs
-Individual genes that are responsible for the majority of phenotypic variation are known
as major genes
-While those that contribute to small amounts of variation are known as minor genes
-Quantitative trait loci which are stretches of dna that either contain or are linked to genes
influencing a trait such as behavior
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