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Chapter 13

NURSING 1F03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Spiritual Practice, Sleep Hygiene, Stressor

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Stress Management
Health Promotion pg. 297-316
Stress – a state of threatened homeostasis that triggers an array of adaptive physiological
and behavioural responses in an effort to reestablish homeostasis.
Stressor – any psychological, social, environmental, physiological, or spiritual stimulus
that disrupts homeostasis, thereby requiring a change or adaptation.
Types of Stressors
- Stressors over which people have no control (extrinsic factors)
- Stressors that individuals can modify by changing their environment, social
interactions, or behaviours
- Stressors created or exacerbated by your own actions (intrinsic factors)
Eustress – stress that can be challenging and useful
Distress – when stress becomes chronic or excessive, and the body is unable to adapt and
maintain homeostasis
Effects of Stress
-Physiological (ex. Increased metabolism, pulse rate, blood pressure, respiration,
muscle tension)
-Psychological (ex. Negative mood states, anxiety, depression, hostility, and
-Sociobehvioural (ex. Overeating, excessive substance use, smoking)
-Spiritual (ex. Feeling disconnected from life’s meaning, or seeking out comfort
in religion, beliefs or community)
Primary Appraisal of coping – includes descriptions of perceived actual and potential
positive and negative outcomes
Secondary Appraisal of coping – consists of the individual’s identification of choices to
cope with the actual or potential harm, threat or challenge.
Stress Management Interventions
- Developing self-awareness
- Monitoring stress warning signs
- Learning and practicing a relaxation response technique
- Using mini-relaxations
- Alternative and complementary therapies (ex. acupuncture)
- Expressive writing
- Nutrition
- Physical activity
- Sleep hygiene
- Cognitive-behavioural restructuring
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