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Chapter 6

NURSING 2MM3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Peanut Allergy, Grounded Theory, Cinahl

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Tracey Jewiss

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EIDM Module 2: Research Designs
Part 1: Module 1 Review
- What are the two major types of research questions?
o Quantitative and qualitative
- What would you say the major difference is between the two types?
o Quantitative research attempts to identify, define, and measure factors that
contribute to a disorder or disease, examine relationships among factors, or
determine that something is caused by something else
o Qualitative research attempts to ask questions about experiences, beliefs, feelings,
process, or perceptions related to a phenomena or problem
- If you have a quantitative question, what is the acronym used to help you format your
- What does this acronym stand for?
o Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome
- If you have a qualitative question, what is the acronym you would use?
o PS
- What does this acronym stand for?
o Patient/population, Situation
- The questions that nurses ask can be answered by specific research designs and there are
advantages to being able to identify the type of research design that mat be used to answer
a particular question
o Helps search literature more efficiently to identify the best available research
evidence and will assist in critically appraising the research evidence once you find
Part2: Quantitative Designs
- Different quantitative research designs answer different questions
- The following will review the most common and rigorous types of quantitative research
designs that answer the following types of questions:

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Questions about Interventions
- Examples of questions about effectiveness of prevention interventions
- These are some questions that want to know if an intervention will prevent
problem/condition/disease from developing
o Do nurse home visits for children in low-income families prevent recurrent child
o Does a multifactorial intervention prevent falls in elderly patients with cognitive
o Can a school-based programme prevent and reduce instances of dating violence in
o Is handwashing with an alcohol-based solution as effective as standard
handwashing with antiseptic soap for reducing hand contamination during routine
patient care?
- The following are examples of questions about the effectiveness of treatment/therapy
- These are questions that want to know if an intervention will treat an existing prevent a
o Does acupuncture reduce pain in adult patients with cancer?
o Are antibiotics effective for treatment of acute otitis media (ear infections) in

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o Do smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy reduce maternal smoking?
- All of these questions attempt to determine if a relationship between 2 factors, the effect of
an intervention (I) or exposure (E) on an outcome (O)
o For example, “Do nurse home visits prevent recurrent child abuse?” the population
would be “children from low-income families”), the intervention/exposure would be
“nurse home visits”, and the outcome would be “child abuse”
- Identify the patient/population, intervention/exposure, comparison and outcome(s).
- “Does inhaled insulin provide better glycaemic control than oral or subcutaneous insulin in
patients with diabetes?”
o Patient/Population = patients with diabetes
o Intervention/Exposure = Inhaled Insulin
o Comparison = subcutaneous insulin
o Outcome = glycemic control
Randomized Control Trials
- Quantitative research designs that compare two groups are used to answer questions about
the effectiveness of prevention or therapy/treatment
- The strongest quantitative research design to compare two groups is a randomized control
trial (RCT)
o An RCT (true experiment) assigns people who have agreed to participate in the
study (participants) into one of the two groups (allocation)
o One group will receive the intervention (experimental group) and the other group will
receive the standard of care or conventional treatment (comparison group), or no
intervention (control group)
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