Chapter 32 – Globalization and the transformation of political community
Globalization and erosion of national loyalties and encouragement of closer identification with
distant peoples is one of the most important questions of the contemporary era.
Realists argue that the use of force to oust the Taliban in Afghanistan and to remove
Saddam Hussein as part of the so-called war n terror provided a sharp reminder of the
continuing centrality of power politics
Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction may result in a new era of inter-state
Nationalism and Political Community
1. European states in the 17 century were not nation-states in the modern sense, but
territorial states governed by absolutist monarchs
2. Territorial States
a. Pre-modern states had a limited ability to direct the lives of subjects
b. Modern territorial states have the capacity to regulate (if not control) most
aspects of society, including economic activity and relations within the family
that were, until recently beyond their reach.
c. Michael Mann argues that modern states enjoy high levels of ‘intensive power’:
(power) that can be projected deep into society.
d. Pre-modern states had poorly defined frontiers and a limited ability to control
e. Modern states have clearly demarcated borders and the ability to project power
across national space and often well beyond it.
f. Mann – Modern states enjoy a high level of ‘extensive power’: power that can be
projected across their territories
g. State was the driving force behind rising levels of interconnectedness
From Territorial States to Nation-States
Many territorial states that established the first overseas empires turned into Nation-states
Two reasons for overall development:
o Rise of industrial capitalism
o Endemic warfare
States played a role in creating national identities
Warfare was crucial for the transition from the territorial to the national state
Turning point was 1789 French Revolution created the nation in arms and national
o Nationalism has been the ideology with the greatest influence on the evolution of
Citizenship & Rights
1950s and 1960s – many western intellectuals believed that the former colonies would
follow the West’s path of economic and political development
Confident that new states would undergo the nation-building process that had occurred in
Ethnic, and religious conflict in new states, the rise of military governments and
economic stagnation demonstrated that modernization theorists underestimated the
challenges facing post-colonial societies.
Francis Fukuyama (Modernization theory) VS Huntington (Clash of civilizations) Chapter 32 – Globalization and the transformation of political community
Globalization produces major cultural cleavages and conflicts rather than an inexorable
trend towards a global agreement on core values.
Changing nature of political community
Quasi-state: failed states
Political differences between Western and Islamic ideologies