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32,33 Chapter Reviews: Political Sci 2I03 Summer 2013

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Political Science
Mark Busser

Chapter 32 – Globalization and the transformation of political community Globalization and erosion of national loyalties and encouragement of closer identification with distant peoples is one of the most important questions of the contemporary era.  Realists argue that the use of force to oust the Taliban in Afghanistan and to remove Saddam Hussein as part of the so-called war n terror provided a sharp reminder of the continuing centrality of power politics  Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction may result in a new era of inter-state rivalries Nationalism and Political Community 1. European states in the 17 century were not nation-states in the modern sense, but territorial states governed by absolutist monarchs 2. Territorial States a. Pre-modern states had a limited ability to direct the lives of subjects b. Modern territorial states have the capacity to regulate (if not control) most aspects of society, including economic activity and relations within the family that were, until recently beyond their reach. c. Michael Mann argues that modern states enjoy high levels of ‘intensive power’: (power) that can be projected deep into society. d. Pre-modern states had poorly defined frontiers and a limited ability to control frontier populations e. Modern states have clearly demarcated borders and the ability to project power across national space and often well beyond it. f. Mann – Modern states enjoy a high level of ‘extensive power’: power that can be projected across their territories g. State was the driving force behind rising levels of interconnectedness From Territorial States to Nation-States  Many territorial states that established the first overseas empires turned into Nation-states  Two reasons for overall development: o Rise of industrial capitalism o Endemic warfare  States played a role in creating national identities  Warfare was crucial for the transition from the territorial to the national state  Turning point was 1789 French Revolution created the nation in arms and national conscription o Nationalism has been the ideology with the greatest influence on the evolution of political communities Citizenship & Rights  1950s and 1960s – many western intellectuals believed that the former colonies would follow the West’s path of economic and political development  Confident that new states would undergo the nation-building process that had occurred in Europe.  Ethnic, and religious conflict in new states, the rise of military governments and economic stagnation demonstrated that modernization theorists underestimated the challenges facing post-colonial societies.  Francis Fukuyama (Modernization theory) VS Huntington (Clash of civilizations) Chapter 32 – Globalization and the transformation of political community  Globalization produces major cultural cleavages and conflicts rather than an inexorable trend towards a global agreement on core values. Changing nature of political community  Quasi-state: failed states  Political differences between Western and Islamic ideologies  Group rights  Cos
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