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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Research Methods Video Lecture Psych 1X03
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Video Lecture Psych 1X03 Chapter 2: Research Methods in Psychology Research Methods 1 Introduction to Scientific Research  The goal of ay scientist is to discover new information about the way the world works  Scientific Method 1. Construct a Theory o Theory: General set of ideas about the way the world works 2. Generate a Hypothesis o Hypothesis: Testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about the relationship between variables 3. Choose a Research Method o The way in which the hypothesis will be tested 4. Collect Data o Taking measurements of the outcomes of the test 5. Analyze Data o Understand the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables 6. Report the Findings o Publish articles in scholarly journals – must go through a rigorous referee process by experts to ensure that the research is scholarly, accurate and meaningful to the field 7. Revise Existing Theories o To include new information into our understanding of the world o Scientists and the scientific community review all findings on a topic to revise existing theories o Paradigm Shift – dramatic change in our way of thinking Conducting an Experiment Testing a Hypothesis  May look at anecdotal evidence to support or refute hypothesis o Anecdotal Evidence: Evidence gathered from others or self experience  Must have multiple tests on different people o Single experience may not be representative of the general result that would occur o Experience of one individual may be different than the experience of another individual under the same circumstances o Result may not be caused by independent variable, may be caused by an external factor Using an Experiment  Experiment: Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another o Eg/ Energy drink enhancing marks  Independent Variable: Variable manipulated by the scientist o Eg/ Number of energy drinks consumed  Dependent Variable: Variable being observed by scientist o Eg/ Test scores Control Groups  Experiment contains two groups of participants: Experimental and Control 1. Experimental group – receives manipulation of the independent variable during the experiment 2. Control group – does not receive manipulation of the independent variable during the experiment o Can compare the dependent variable measure for both groups Video Lecture Psych 1X03 o Participants in experimental and control groups should be as similar as possible, minimizing the differences that exist between them prior to the experiment, so that a difference found in the dependent variable is likely to be caused by manipulation of the independent variable  Within Subjects Design: Manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure o Tests the same subject repeatedly while the independent variable is manipulated o Minimizes the effect of subject differences on the dependent measure o Can be time consuming and costly o Measures being used may change  Eg/ Test Score Experiment – tests may get harder throughout the year o Practice Effect: Improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced  Reduces control of experiments – hard to distinguish between the natural improvement and the effects of manipulating the independent variable  Between Subjects Design o One group of participants receives the experimental manipulation o One group of participants acts as a control group o Two groups must be as similar as possible in every way, except in manipulation of independent variable o Confounding Variable: A variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results  Eg/ Energy Drink/Test Scores Experiment – vegetarians in one group; diet may effect results Sampling  Criteria cannot be too specific, or else you limit the scope of your conclusion  Population: The general group of people we want to learn about  Sample: Selected members of the population that we collect data from o Must accurately reflect the population itself so that the results of the experiment can be generalized o Random Sample: Choosing a sample at random from the entire population; reduces the change that the selection might be biased toward a specific group  Random Assortment: Assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group randomly to avoid any biases that might cause
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