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Canada (158,126)
Psychology (1,303)
PSYCH 1XX3 (270)
Joe Kim (243)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Experience allows you to make automatic judgments to categorize the personality and behaviour of others, which in turn can influence how you judge your own actions and beliefs Conscious and unconscious judgments you make lead to “social perceptions” which influence how you interpret your behaviour and the behaviours of individuals and groups. For every observable behaviours, there’s many motivating factors Correspondent Inference Theory Degree of choice – did he chose to act this way? Expected – uncommon behaviour gives us more info Intention of the behaviour – corporate or sister to stop smoking Convariation Theory Consistency – does the individual usually behave this way in this situation? Is he usually unable to get the computer to work? Distinictiveness – Behave differently in different situations? Does he trouble with all computers? Consensus – Do others behave similarly in this situation? Does it not work for other people? Fundamental Attribution Error Overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors - Driver cuts you off in rush hour traffic, you will think “terrible driver,” not “he’s probably late for something important” - Coined by Ross, for social psychology - Jones found it “overly provocative and misleading, wished he thought of it first” Consider the situational factors for your own behaviour Difference in perception of behaviour and that of others: “actor-observer effect” Harre and colleagues, 2004: young drivers asked about friends’ risky driving behaviour – attributed it to the friend’s personal factors (having fun, showing off), while claimed their drove riskily cause they were in a hurry or feeling pressure from peers Cultural differences Miller’s experiment – Indians attribute more to situational factors as they age, while Americans attribute more to personal American 15 year olds & adults made more attributions as a result of personal factors than situational factors Indian 15 year olds and adults mad more attributions to situational factors than personal factors Cultural differences in likelihood/tendency of making fundamental attribution error, which develops over time Morris and Peng, 1994 – fundamental attribution error is diminished in collectivist socieities where there is less focus on individual behaviour and more focus on relationships and roles within society American Olympic gold medal winners more likely to attribute their gold winning performance to determination and talent Japanese gold medal winners – success of coaching team and organization Above Average Effect Tendency to perceive yourself favourably Above average effect – causes you to identify dispositional causes for your successes, but situational factors to your failures, giving you an exaggerated view of your abilities Winning a game of cards – not by chance but by your strategy! Being dealt bad hands causes losing! Examples: I have above average intelligence, attractiveness, social skills, driving skills Cognitive Heuristics Social perceptions are shaped by heuristics due to our limited ability and formal training in analyzing behaviour, and limited attention to put towards this task Representative heuristic – Jennifer is concerned abo
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