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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Textbook Reading.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

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Perceptual Development: Section 5.1 and 5.2  Sensory and perceptual processes are the means by which people receive, select, modify, and organize stimulation from the world  Perceptual processes are closely linked to motor skills – coordinated movements of the muscles and limbs 5.1 Basic Sensory and Perceptual Processes Smell, Taste, and Touch  Newborns have a keen sense of smell will respond and is evident by facial expressions  Highly developed sense of taste  can differentiate sour, sweet, salty and bitter  Sensitive to touch many areas of the body will respond reflexively when touched. Able to also perceive pain seen with indirect evidence of high pitched cry  Perceptual skills incredibly important for newborns- smell and touch help them recognize their mothers and make it much easier to learn to eat  prepares newborns to learn about + Hearing  Fetus can hear at 7 or 8 months of development  Don’t hear as well as adults auditory threshold refers to the quietest sound that a person can hear  To measure this with an infant, have them seated on parent’s lap. Both wear headphones and tones are presented. Observer watches for changes baby makes  Infants can hear sounds best that have pitches in the range of human speech- neither very high or very low pitched  Can differentiate vowels from consonant sounds and by 4 ½ months, they can recognize their own names  Can distinguish different musical sounds  Can use sound to locate objects  By the middle of the first year, most infants respond to much of the information provided by sound Seeing  Visual acuity is defined as the smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably  Most infants will look at patterned stimuli instead of plain, non patterned stimuli  When infants look at the two stimuli equally, it indicates that they are no longer able to distinguish the stripes of the patterned stimuli  Measurements of this sort indicate that newborns and 1 month olds see at 6 meters what adults see 60 to 120 m  Vision acuity improves rapidly and by 1 birthday is essentially the same as an adult’s vision also begin to see world in colour  We detect wavelength and therefore colour, with specialized neurons called cones that are in teh retina of the eye  Different kinds of cones are linked in complex circuits of neurons in the eye and in the brain and this neural circuitry allows us to see the world in colour  Circuits begin to function in the first few months after birth- by 3 months can perceive full range of colour (similar to adults by 3-4 months) Integrating Sensory Information  Traditionally, coordinating information from different senses was thought to be challenging task for infants but recent thinking challenges this view  Intersensory Redundancy Theory: the infants perceptual system is particularly attuned to amodal information that is presented in multiple sensory modes In experiment, infants were able to detect a change in emotional expression at a young age (4 months) when it was presented in multiple sensory modes than when it was presented in a single mode (7 months) 5.2 Complex Perceptual And Attentional Processes Perceiving Objects  Our perceptual processes determine that certain features go together to form objects  Limited in newborns but develops rapidly in the first few months after birth  By four months infants use a number of cues to determine which elements go together to form objects  Motion elements that move together are usually part of the same object. Other cues include colour, texture and aligned edges Perceptual Constancies  Early on, infants master size constancy, the realization that an object’s actual size remains the same despite changes in the size of its retinal image. By 4 or 5 months, babies treat the bear that they’ve seen twice at different distances as familiar  only possible if they have size constancy. Other examples are colour, brightness and shape constancy. Overall can tell that objects are the same even though they may look different Depth  Babies need to know where an object is  Used visual cliff to test depth perception  virtually
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