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Canada (161,877)
Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 2AP3 (97)
Chapter 16

Ch. 16 - ADHD and Autism.pdf

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Richard B Day

p. 568 - 573 p. 585 - 590  Estimatesofchildhood disorder Verhulst  o 49 studies of over 240 000 children cross countries o Prevalence rate was 12. 3 percent  Recent study o 14% of Canadian kids experience some mental disorder o Most prevalent is anxiety, ADHD, conduct and depressive disorder  Specialvulnerabilitiesofyoungchildren  Less self-understanding and realistic view  More difficulty coping with stressful events  Unrealistic concepts due to their limited perspective, suicide to be reunited with dead parent  More dependent on others, makes the more vulnerable if rejected or ignored  Easily upset by minor problems, but recover more quickly than adults  Classificationofchildhoodand adolescentdisorders  Earlyyears o Wasn't included in Kraepelin's 1883 text o DSM-1 had 2 childhood disorders  Schizophrenia and adjustment reaction o Biggest problem:  Adult classification system was used on children, where many childhood disorders don't have counterparts in adult psychopathology  Also ignored that environment plays a HUGE role in childhood psychopathology  ADHD  Hyperactive: often 7 - 15 IQ points below average intelligence  NOT ANXIOUS, just appear to be  Do poorly in school, often have learning disabilities  Causes o Both genetic and social environmental o Suggests family pathology  Parental personality disorders or hysteria is associated with kids with ADHD o Many causes that aren't conclusive or finalized  Treatments o Ritalin  Decreases over activity, aggressiveness and distractibility and increases alertness  Reduced behavioural symptoms in 1/2 to 2/3 of cases  Effective short-term treatment of ADHD, long-term effects are not known/show little long-term effect  Side effects  Decreased brain blood flow, disruption of growth hormone  Potential for psychotic symptoms if used in heavy dosages over a long period of time  Recreational use among university students  Stats  Prescriptions for Ritalin increased 600% between 1985 and 2002  40% of junior high and 15% of high school student said they were prescribed Ritalin (U.S. survey) o Strattera  Nonstimulant, atomoxetine  Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor  Reduces ADHD symptoms  Side effects  Nausea, vomiting, fatigue, no appetite, potential liver damage, increase risk of self-harm o Gold standard: psychological intervention and medication  Even though medication is more effective than psychological, both together is the best  Selective reinforcement and family therapy  Behavioural treatment with positive reinforcement and learning environment that minimizes errors and maximizes immediate feedback and success  Intoadolescence o Retain throughout adulthood or develop other problems: aggressive or substance abuse  35% of cocaine abusers had ADHD when they were children o 25% of ADHD children never graduated high school  Autism  First described by Kanner in 1943  Statistics
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