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PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter

Ch 1,2,3,10,11,12 Summaries

18 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2B03
Professor
Richard B Day

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Description
Chapter 1 THE BASIC APPROACHES: 1. Trait approach - individual differences, personality traits 2. Biological approach - biological influences, anatomy, physiology, genetics, evolution 3. Psychoanalytic approach - psychodynamic and the unconscious, nature, resolution of internal mental conflict 4. Phenomenological-humanistic approach (linked to Humanistic psychology approach - distinctly human aspects like happiness, anxiety, creativity)- conscious experience and awareness & cross-cultural psych (diff psych b/w cultures) 5. Learning/Behaviorist approach - behavioral change (after rewards/punishments), leads to social learning approach (affected by mental processes: observation, self evaluation. social interaction) 6. Cognitive process approach - perception and thinking Notes: • Personality and clinical psych differ (overlap in "personality disorders") • Interconnection w strengths & weakness (inseparable) - ex. bad quality can lead to good results (very stubborn leads to the job being done, good quality can lead to bad results (too nice and becomes a push over)  Bobby Knight: sarcastic, intimidating b-ball coach lead most players w scholarships Theorist: 1. Sigmund Freud 2. Carl Jung 3. B.F. Skinner 4. John Watson Authors: 1. Kurt Vonnegut • Mother Knight book, moral: "we are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful what we pretend to be" Words: • Psychological Triad: 3 imp. psych topics - how ppl: 1) think, 2) feel, 3) behave (they can conflict - ex. feel attraction for someone that is "bad news" (brain tells you no, heart says yes) • Personality: person's characteristics patterns of: thought, emotion, behaviour + psychological mechanisms • Basic approach (aka paradigm): theoretical point of view, focuses on something while ignoring other things. (all six listed above) Chapter 2 - There are no indicators to personality – just clues, and clues are always ambiguous S Data: Self Reports - Self judgements – ask the person about their own opinion - Use questionnaires, open ended questions - Questionnaires used to gather S data have face validity (intended to measure what they seem to measure, taken at face value) o Ask questions directly and obviously related to construct designed to measure (i.e. on friendliness scale – include, I really like most people, I like to go to parties, etc.) - Advantages o Large amounts of information – always with yourself in every situation o Access to thoughts, feelings and intentions – things invisible to others is visible to you o Some S data are true by definition (i.e. self esteem – concepts are self views) o Casual force  Self verification – people work hard to bring others to treat them in a manner that confirms their self conception  View of yourself doesn’t reflect only what you think, but also causes what you do o Simple and easy (inexpensive) - Disadvantages o Maybe they can’t tell you (memory is finite and imperfect)  Exception events and experiences tend to stand out (i.e. when brave person was scared – doesn’t reflect personality)  Personality becomes invisible to oneself – someone always manipulative may not realize it’s a big part of their personality  Info distorted in memory, lack of insight/ability to see into own personality o Maybe they won’t tell you  doesn’t want to brag, wants things to remain private, etc o Too simple and too easy – overused I Data: Informants’ Reports - Knowledgeable informants about general attributes of individual’s personality such as traits o Informant – acquaintance, co worker, clinical psychologist – someone knows person well o Judgements: derive from somebody observing somebody else in whatever contexts they have to have encountered them and then rendering a general opinion based on observation - Advantages o Large amount of information – can base behaviour on dozens of situations o Real world basis – behaviour from real world situations so more relevant to personality o Common sense – people are smart, take account of context and intention of behaviour  Context – immediate situation & behaviours that an informant might know about (i.e. give gift to enemy b/c manipulative or b/c generally generous person) o Some I data are true by definition (i.e. likeability and charm exist in other people’s eyes) o Casual force  Expectancy effect/behavioural confirmation: become what people expect you to be - Disadvantage o limited behavioural information – not always with the person in all situations  people live in compartments – act different in different situations o lack of access to private experience (i.e. private fantasies, fears, hopes, dreams) o error – only human so judgements can often be mistaken, can’t remember everything that a person has done (unusual, extreme moments stick out leading to less accurate judgements) o bias – seeing someone in more positive or negative terms than they really deserve L Data: Life Outcomes - verifiable, concrete, real life outcomes that may hold psychological significance o i.e. police blotter, medical file, tax return, asking participant directly (why were you arrested, what is your income) o results of personality rather than direct reflection of personality itself - advantages o objective and verifiable  i.e. arrests, income, marital and health status can be expressed in exact, numeric amounts o intrinsic importance  goal of applied psychologists is to predict and have a positive effect on real life outcomes such as criminal behaviour, employment status, success in school, etc o psychological relevance  i.e. some people have psychological makeup making them more prone to criminal behaviour  i.e. graduate from school because they are dedicated, keep rooms clean because they are conscientious - disadvantage o multi-determination  hard to establish direct connections between specific attributes of personality and life outcomes  life situations might not be determined by personality – might be because of social class, educational opportunities, etc B Data: Behavioural Observations - behaviour in real life or lab situations - people put in testing situation and then behaviour is directly observed o natural b data – direct observations of the participant’s behaviour in real life  daily diaries – report on behaviour, different from S data b/c no interpretation  experience sampling methods – beeper studies (record what you’re doing when beeper beeps)  hybrid b data – reports of specific behaviours by person or acquaintance (B + S/I data)  electronically activated ear – digital audio recorded that records sounds in intervals which are categorized (i.e. watching TV, singing, laughing, on the phone, talking)  watch people in not quite so natural contexts – i.e. kids think it’s a nursery but psychologists watching on other side  expensive and difficult o contrived b data – behaviour in labs  experiments – find out how people react to situations (dramatic like smoke filling a room while filling out a form or mundane like having people engage in discussions)  personality tests – different from personality questionnaires • Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) – true false items like “I am a special messenger of the Lord” • Projective tests like Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) or Rorschach test – shown pictures and asked to describe what they see • Difference between B and S data o S = psychologist asks you a question because he wants to know the answer o B = psychologist asks you a question to see how you will answer  physiological measures • blood pressure, galvanic skin response, heart rate, brain scans – these are things that a person does via autonomic nervous system - Advantages o wide range of contexts (both real and contrived) – psychologist can present stimuli and see how participant reacts o appearance of objectivity – psychologist doesn’t have to take anyone’s word for it  combo of direct assessment, numeric expression, high reliability - Disadvantages o Uncertain interpretation – numbers cannot interpret themselves  No one can know what a bit of b data means and measures, psychologically, just by looking at or even designing it - Hybrid between S and B data = behavioroid – participants report what they think they would do under various circumstances - Because each kind of data is both potentially valuable and misleading – discrepancies among data sources can be as informative as agreement between them so researchers should use and compare all types Chapter 3 - Psychology emphasizes the methods by which knowledge can be obtained, and in general is more concerned with better understanding human nature than cataloguing facts - Technical training: conveys what is already known about a subject so that knowledge can be applied o Research: exploration of the unknown - Scientific education: teaches not only what is known but also how to find out what is not yet known o i.e. pharmacists vs. pharmacologists, biologists vs. physicians - essence of science is that it should be based on data o reliability: refers to the stability or repeatability of measurements  measurement error: extraneous influences on data • influences depend on what you are trying to measure – i.e. current state or overall trait  factors that undermine reliability • low precision • state of participant – i.e. happy, sad, sick, etc • state of experimenter • variation in the environment – i.e. fire alarm goes off, etc  techniques to improve reliability • care with research procedure • standardized research protocol – constant, scripted protocol • measure something important • aggregation (averaging) o random errors tend to cancel each other out o validity: refers to the degree to which measurement actually measures what it is trying to measure  must be reliable  measurement must match ultimate, true reality (IQ measure valid if measures intelligence)  construct: something that cannot be directly touched or seen, but which affects and helps to explain many different things that are invisible (i.e. intelligence)  construct validation: research strategy that amounts to gathering as many different measurements as you can of the construct and at the same time validate the construct as relevant to each of the measurements o generalizability: is a broader concept that subsumes both reliability and validity and it refers the degree to which one’s results apply to people all over the world  Gender bias – testing only one gender  Shows vs. no shows – i.e. freshman that showed were emotionally expressive and self sacrificing while the ones that didn’t were narcissistic and low on assertiveness  Cohort effects – group of people living at a particular time to be different in some way from those who live at earlier or later times  Ethnic and cultural diversity – most research based on white, middle class college students  Burden of proof • Should resist making generalizations about other cultures when it is difficult to generalize about own • Shouldn’t have to worry about how and why a particular result or theory might not apply to another culture - research design: the plan one uses for gathering psychological data o case studies: examine particular phenomena or individuals in detail to find out as much as possible and can be an important source of new ideas that might apply more generally  advantages • it feels as if it does justice to the topic • well chose cause study can be a source of new ideas (i.e. apple on Newton’s head) • sometimes the method is important (i.e. why did plane crash)  disadvantages • not controlled o ideas tested by correlational and experimental studies  i.e. measure how anxiety affects test scores • experimental method – make one group anxious and then test scores (variable manipulated) o disadvantages:  can never know what you have manipulated therefore where actual causality was located  create levels of a variable that are unlikely or even impossible in real life  often require deception  some experiments are not possible • correlational method – measure amount of anxiety already has then test scores (variable already exists without manipulation) o third variable problem: both of 2 correlated variables caused by rd unmeasured 3 o experimental method  only one that can be used to determine the direction of causality (whether one variable can affect another) o correlational method  determines how often or how much one variable affects another in real life - representative design is a technique used to maximize the generalizability of research results o research should be designed to sample across the domains to which the investigator will wish to generalize the results o more expensive and time consuming - statistical significance of a result represents the probability that the data would have been obtained if the “null hypothesis” were true but it is typical misinterpreted as the probability that the null hypothesis is true o null hypothesis – possibility that the actual size of the difference between conditions or the correlation is 0 o null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has many problems that are increasingly being acknowledged  not correct to say significance level gives the probability that null hypothesis is true  statistical significance is not the same as the strength or importance of the result  Why is result p<0.05 significant and not 0.06?  Type 1 error – p level addresses this kind of error • Deciding that one variable has an effect on another variable when it really doesn’t (i.e. p=0.05, 5% chance of being wrong if say that there is an effect)  Type II error – deciding one variable does not have an effect on another variable when it really does - Correlation coefficient: used to describe the strength of the effect in either a correlational or an experimental study o Between 1 (perfect + correlation) and -1 (perfect – correlation) o Correlation of .3 when squared 0.09 = 9% of variance is explained by correlation - best way to evaluate research results is in terms of effect size which describes numerically the degree to which one variable is related to another o one good measure is correlation coefficient which can be evaluated by the Binomial Effect Size Display (shows how much of an effect an experimental intervention is likely to have and how well one can predict an outcome from an individual measurement of difference) Chapter 10 Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis Psychic Determinism - Determinism – idea that everything that happens has a cause, that in principle can be identified - Psychic determinism – everything that happens in a person’s mind (so everything they think/do) has a specific cause (nothing is accidental, no such thing as free will/miracles) - Assumption of this leads to the conclusion that many imp mental processes are unconscious Internal Structure - Mind has internal structures made of parts that can function independently and in which some cases conflict with each other - Brain = physical organ; mind = psychological result of what the brain and body does - Mind divided into 3 parts – id, ego, superego - i.e. id of governor of NYC seeks prostitutes even though superego condemns it – ego (rational part of mind) not doing its job managing crossfire between competing forces - modern research – mind not actually divided neatly into 3 parts but does support that it has separate and independent structures that can process different thoughts and emotions at the same time Psychic Conflict - idea of compromise formation is important - ego’s main job is to find compromise between competing forces and that is what the individual consciously thinks and does o i.e. id wants ice cream, superego says no b/c didn’t study – ego says get ice cream after studying Mental Energy - this is the energy required aka libido and only a fixed/finite amount is available at a given amount o energy powering one part of the mind is not available for any other part o original formulation assumed that if a psychological impulse was not expressed, it would build up over time (i.e. getting angry, holding it in, snapping) – usually wrong o current thinking – it is the mind’s capacity for processing information rather than its energy that is limited  retains the implication that capacity used up by one purpose is not available for anything else o goal of psychoanalysis (from patient’s perspective): free up more psychic energy for challenges of daily living by removing neurotic conflicts one by one Controversy of Psychoanalysis - Victorians – theory was dirty - 21 century – unscientific Freud - Use of free association – “talking helps” o Make thoughts and fears explicit so conscious and rational mind can deal with them o Therapist can provide emotional support during difficult task of trying to figure out what’s going on - Similarity of psychoanalysts and humanists = attempt to know themselves first Psychoanalysis, Life and Death - Behind the things people want – 2 motives – first impels toward life, other towards death o Both are always present and death always wins - Life drive aka libido also referred to as sexual drive o Final analysis – sex is simply life o Sex necessary for creation of children and enjoyment can be an important part of being alive o In this sense – libido is sexual drive – Freud meant that it had to do with creation, protection and enjoyment of life and with creativity, productivity and growth o This fundamental force exists within every person = force libido - Drive toward death = Thanatos o Did not mean to claim death wish but the duality of nature o People engage in a lot of irrational destructive activity and in the end, everyone dies o Not morbid – think of more the concept of entropy (basic force towards randomness and disorder)  People want to make thoughts and worlds orderly and maintain creativity and growth but entropy dooms these efforts to failure in the end - Opposition of libido and thanatos derived from doctrine of opposites o Doctrine states that everything implies/requires an opposite o Extremes on a scale may be more similar to each other than to the middle o Freud never really worked death drive into his theory Psychological Development - “follow the energy” - Stages: oral, anal, phallic and genital - Each stage has 3 aspects o Physical focus: energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained o Psychological theme: related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world during development o Adult character type: associated with being fixated in that particular stage rather than fully developing toward the next one o fails to resolve issue – personal will have psychological scar tissue related to that stage Oral Stage (0 – 18months) - newborn essentially helpless but can do one think – suck - mouth first place psychic energy is focused - physical focus = mouth, lips, tongue – these parts for an infant are sexual organs - meant that life force and primary feelings of pleasure are concentrated here o eating, sucking, exploring things with one’s mouth = source of pleasure - find something – explore with mouth, not trying to eat it - psychological theme = dependency o lying back and having others provide everything he needs o baby is all id – baby wants full time to be fed, held, dry diaper, warm, comfortable, entertained  id’s speciality = wanting something; actually doing something about it is the job of psychological structures that develop only later - if needs fulfilled – psychic energy will move along to next stage - 2 things can go wrong o needs not fulfilled (uncaring, incompetent, irresponsible) so baby might develop mistrust of other people and not be able to deal with adequately with dependency relationships o baby’s needs are fulfilled instantly and automatically so never occurs world could respond differently – so poor service and increasing demands of world could come as a shock o any extreme childhood experience will yield equivalently pathological results - adult personality type = oral character o 2 extremes – both share obsession, discomfort, fundamental irrationality about issues related to dependency and passivity o One extreme – independent (refuse help from everyone, accomplishment means nothing if they don’t do it alone) o Other extreme – passive individuals (wait around but are bewildered about failure to get what they want) o Can switch one from one oral type to another – i.e. aggressive independent to passive dependent Anal Stage - Child is expected to do few things for herself – i.e. control emotions, follow orders as begins to understand language, toilet training - Child’s developmental task is to figure out how/how much to control himself and how/how much to be controlled by those in authority - Ego develops – ego’s job is to mediate between what the child wants and what is possible o Rudimentary ego that must figure out that breast feeding will continue if biting stops - Psychological theme = self control and obedience o Child moves around effectively, develop ability to control urges (defecation, to cry, grab forbidden object, hit baby sister) o Testing stage – terrible twos – figure out how much power authority figures really have - 2 things can go wrong o Unreasonable expectations can be traumatic – child must never cry, always obey, hold bowels longer than physical capability o Equally problematic can be to never demanding child to control urges and ignoring toilet training - Adult personality type = anal character o Personality organized around control issues o One extreme – obsessive, compulsive, stingy, orderly, rigid, subservient to authority, control every aspect of life, cannot tolerate disorganization/ambiguity o Other extreme – little or no self control, unable to do anything on time, chaotic, disorganized, defy authority Phallic Stage (3.5 – 7 years) - Coming to terms with sex differences and all that they imply (boys have penises, girls don’t) - Boys wonder what would happen if lost penis, girls just wonder what happened - Oedipal crisis – young boys fall physically/emotionally in love with their mothers and fear father’s jealousy/castration & for girls the crisis is less intense but suffer grief over castration that already happened o Resolve anxiety – identify with same sex parent - Psychological theme = gender identity and sexuality o Need to figure out what it means to be a boy or a girl o girl – be like mom, boy – be like dad; taking on attitudes, values – process of identification o related themes: love, sexuality, fear, jealousy o adult consequences are development of morality and sexuality (who you find attractive) and if you find yourself masculine or feminine
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