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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2C03
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter1:Intro January-22-13 4:01 AM SocialPsych: Whatisdiffbtwnfieldexperiment&correlationalstudy? • Studiesinfluencesofsituations/people • Howpeoplethinkabout,influence/relatetoeachother HiddenValues: • Goodlife:Maslow'sself-actualizationideasbasedonhisheroes • Formingconcepts: ○ Psychologistobservesbehaviour ○ Makesvaluejudgmentaboutcharacteristicsofperson • Naturalisticfallacy ○ Confusingwhatiswithwhatshouldbe Hindsightbias:feelingofthinkingsomethingiscommonsenseafterbeingtoldaboutit Theory:integratedsetofprinciplesexplaining/predictingobservations ○ Ideathatsummarizefactswhichareobservable ○ Implyhypotheses:testablepredictions  Allowtheoriestobetested  Giveresearchdrxn  Givetheoriespracticalapplication Surveys: • Getrandomsample=goodfrrepresentationpurposes • Unrepresentativesamplesimportanttoavoid ○ E.g.Magazinegetsphone#s ofpplfrm telephonebooks/autoregistrationsabout election ○ Inaccurateb/cpplwhocan't afforddidn'trespond Bias: • Orderofquestions ○ Pplwanttoremainconsistentw/idealsexpressed ○ e.g.Firstquestion:JapansetrestrictionsonAmericanproducts=>lotssay no ○ Firstquestion:America,thenJapan=>lotssay yes • Responsebias ○ Responseoptionschangesubject'sview • Socialdesirabilitybias ○ Pplwantexperimenterstoviewthemin+velight ○ Implicitmeasuresusedtoensuretheydon'tknow • Wordingofquestion ○ Canaffectppl'sopinions ○ Caninteractw/knowledgeofissuetoresultinnoeffect Experimentalresearch: • Oftenbettertocreatesimulationsofrealworld • Randomassignment=goodequalizertoeliminateeffectsofextraneousfactors Ethics: • Mundanerealism:degreetowhichexperimentsimilartoeverydaysituation • Experimentalrealism:absorbing&involvingparticipants • Pplshouldfeelgoodaboutthemselvesleavingexperiment • Pplshouldlearnsomethingaboutsocialpsych Generalizations: • Inreallife,allthingsusuallyntequal • Subjectsofexpusuallyunistudents Chapter6:Conformity January-22-13 5:25AM TypesofConformity: • Compliance ○ Outward ○ Doingsomethingw/obelievinginit • Obedience ○ Inresponsetoexplicitdemand ○ Toreap reward,avoidpunishment • Acceptance ○ Believinginwhatgrouppersuadedyoutodo Suggestability: • e.g.Laughtracks ○ Workespeciallywellwhenwethinkpplintrackarelikeus • Moodlinkage ○ Beingaroundhappypeoplecanmakeyouhappy • Chameleoneffect ○ Pplunconsciouslymimicothers ○ Inducesotherstolikethemwhentheyaremoresimilar ○ Enhancessocialbonds ○ Leadstomoremoneydonatedtocharity Werthereffect: • Suicidesincreaseafterwell-publicizedsuicidesinspecificareawherewell-publicized Whatbreedsobedience?(Milgram): • Distancecauseslessobedience ○ GaschambersinNazigermanycreatedto dispersonalizedeath • Closenessofexperimenter ○ Pplcomplymorewhentouched • Legitimacyofexp • Letigimacyofattachedinstitution • Liberatingeffectsofgroupinfluence ○ Ifgroupnt doingit,individualactsonoriginalinstincttonotdoit • Graduallyincreasedshocks ○ Foot-in-the-door • Compartmentalizationofevil ○ PplaskedtodoadministrationfrMilgramexp=highobedience FAE: • Attributeppl'sactionstotheircharacteristics ○ Butpplare productof charactersticsANDsituation Factorsincreasingconformity: • Minorityopinionfrmadiffgroupcauseslessconformity • Status ○ Higherstatus=lessconformity ○ Well-dressedppl=more • Publicresponse ○ Pplconformpublicly • Commitment ○ Whenmadepubliccommitment,don'tconform,evenwheneveryoneelsesaysopposite,publicly Whoconforms? • Personalitycan'tpredictbehaviourinindividualsituation ○ Goodpredictorofaverageactions • Predictsbehaviourwhensocialinfluenceweak • Culture Dowe wantto bedifferent? • Reactance ○ Pplrebelwhensocialinfluenceeffectsfreedom • Attributionsfrconsensus ○ Understandingofwhylargegroupofpplhavecertainopinionaffectsourwillingnesstoconform ○ Iflargegroupofppl beencoerced=probs wontconform • Assertinguniqueness ○ Inwesternculture,discomfortalsocomesfrmtoomuchsameness Minorityinfluence: • Consistency ○ Minoritythatstickstotheirposition ○ Minorityslownesseffect=minorityviewsexpressedlessquicklythanmajority ○ Stimulatecreativethinkingb/cdissent • Self-confidence ○ Persistence/consistency=>confidence Takingheadseatat table=sameeffect ○ Takingheadseatat table=sameeffect ○ Self-assuranceinducesrethinkingbymajority  Speciallyinopinionmattersasopposedtofact • Defectionsfrmmajority ○ Consistentminorityhelpsmajorityexpressdoubtsorconverttominority ○ Pplwhoconvert= morepersuasivethanconsistentminorityvoice ○ Newcomersexertinfluenceb/cattentionreceived Bystandereffect(Latane& Darley's5-step model): • Morepeople=peoplelesslikelyto ○ Notice ○ Interpretasemergency  Illusionoftransparency:misinterpretationofothers'abilitytounderstandwhatwe'refeelinginside  Pluralisticignorance:pplrejectanorm privately,acceptitpublicly  Interpretations:ladywhoscreams"Idon'tknowyou"getsmorehelpthan"I don'tknowwhy I marriedyou"-->ppldon't interfere inmarriagesituations ○ Assumeresponsibilityfrhelping  Pplsaytheywouldactthesameindividuallyasingroup=poorpredictorofreality  Diffbtwnindividuals&groupsminimizedwhensituationveryclearlyneedshelp  Ppllesslikelytohelpfrmcityb/csensoryoverload/compassionfatigue  Pplfromcountrieslessadvanced,moresympathetic=morelikelytohelp  Ifobservingothers'facialexpressions=morelikelytohelp  Ifingroupof friends,peoplehelpmorethanindividuals ○ Decidewhatyoushoulddotohelp ○ Decidehowtodoit Groupthink: • **directiveleadership&insulationfrmdissent • Overestimategroup'sabilities: • Illusionofinvulnerability:beliefthatnothingbadcouldhappentogroup • Unquestionedbeliefingroup'smorality:Ignoreethicalissuesb/cassumegroupisinherentlymoral • Close-mindedness: • Rationalization:discardschallengesbyjustifyingdecisionstogether • Stereotypedviewofopponent:tryingtobeat 'imaginedopponent' • Pressurestouniformity • Conformitypressure:Groupmembersridiculepplwhodoubt • Self-censorship:Memberswithholddoubtbceveryoneelseinconsenus • Illusionofunanimity • Mindguards:pplwhoprotectgroupfrm vitalconflictinginfo Preventinggroupthink: • Openleadership • Impartiality • Assigndevil'sadvocate • Subdividegroup • Welcomecritiquefrmoutsideexperts • Call2ndchancemeetings Brainstorming: • Pplgeneratemorecreativeideasindividually • Ingroups ○ Free-riding ○ Somepplscaredofvoicingopinions • Pplfeelmoreeffectiveingroupsb/ctheydisproportionatelycredittheirideastothemselves • Strategies ○ Group-->thensolo-->allowsideastobeprimedbygroup ○ Interactbywriting-->everyoneactiveatonce -->brainwriting ○ Electronicbrainstorming-->stopsverbaltrafficjam Chapter5:Persuasion February-03-13 10:26PM • Culture-shapingusuallyhappenstop-down ○ Culturalelitescontrolinfodistributiontorestofppl Pathsleadingto persuasion: • Associatesomethingw/somethingpositive ○ Toconvinceitisgood • Centralroute: ○ Audiencemotivated ○ Canthinksystematicallyaboutissue ○ Focusonarguments ○ Leadstomoreenduringbehaviouralchange • Peripheralroute: ○ Whenaudiencentinvolved,toobusytopayattentiontocontent ○ Followcuestriggeringacceptance ○ Sayfamiliarstatementsinsteadofnovelideas ○ Visualcuesverygoodatthis • **changingattitudeseasierthanchangingbehaviour • Ruleofthumbheuristicseasiertousewhenevaluatingideas Elementsofpersuasion: • Communicator ○ Credibility:  Effectsofsourcecredibilitydiminishafter1month  Impactofnon-crediblepeoplemayincreaseifpplremembermsg  Sleepereffect:delayedpersuasionwhereyouforgetsource/connectionw/msgbutforget reasonfrdiscountingit  Perceivedexpertise: □ Startby sayingthingsaudienceagreeswith □ Introductionassomeonewhoisknowledgeable □ Speakconfidently  Perceivedtrustworthiness: □ Speechstyle □ Pplwhomakeeyecontact=morebelievable □ Ifaudiencethinkscommunicatornottryingtopersuadethem □ Thinkpplarguingagainstself-interestmoresincere □ Beingwillingtosufferfryourbeliefs  Bothtrustworthiness&credibilityincreasewhenpeopletalkfast ○ Attractiveness&liking  Respondmoretopeoplewelike  Likingopensyouuptocentralpersuasionorpositiveassociationslater  Emotionalargumentsmoreeffectivefrmbeautifulppl  Similarity:welikepeoplewhoarelikeus ○ Credibilitymoreimportantw/objectivethings ○ Attractivenessmoreimportantw/subjectivethings • Message ○ Well-educated&analyticalpeopleresponsivetorationalappeals ○ Ifinitialattitudesformedbyemotion,emotion-basedattitudesbetter ○ Goodfeelings  e.g.Studentsmoreconvincedwhenallowedtoeatpeanutswhilebeingexposedto argument  Positivepplmoremotivatedtothink&makeimpulsivedecisions  Unhappypplspendmoretimethinking ○ Arousingfear  Fear& responsehavepositivecorrelation  Workbetterwhenpreventingbadthingsthanwhenpromotinggoodthing Whenfearrelatestopleasurableactivity,nobehaviourchange,usuallydenial  Whenfearrelatestopleasurableactivity,nobehaviourchange,usuallydenial  Whenavoidanceinfontgiven,frighteningmsgs=overwhelming ○ Discrepancy  Pplmorelikelytoacceptthingsintheirrangeofacceptability  Crediblesourcescauseopinionchangewhengivingopinionverydifferentfrmaudience  Ifaudiencentveryinvolvedinopposingissue,goodtoofferlargeopiniondifference ○ One-sidedvs.Two-sided  One-sided:peoplewhoalreadyagree  Two-sided:peoplewhoinitiallydisagree □ Moreeffectivewhenpplaware(orgoingtobe)ofopposingarguments  Optimists-convincedbypositivepersuasion  Pessimists-convincebynegativepersuasion ○ Primacyvs.Recency  Primacy:preconceptionscontrolinterpretations □ Formedopinionshardtochange □ Workswhenlotsofconsecutiveinfobacktoback □ Enhancedwhen1stmsgstimulatesthinking  Recency:forgetoldmsgstoremembernewones □ Lotsoftimeseparatestwomessages □ Audiencecommitsitselfsoonaftersecond/newestmsg • Howmessageisconveyed ○ Advertisingmakesthingsfamiliar=moreliked ○ Repetitionincreasesbelievability ○ Repeatingclaim&discountingitcanstillleadpeopletothinkit'struebyforgettingdiscounting ○ Morerepetition/rhyming=morefluency=morebeleivability ○ Passiveappealseffectivewhen:  Significance&familiaritydecreasses ○ Activeexperiencestrengthensattitudes  Especiallywhenyoufeelresponsible  Attitudesmoreenduring/influentialwhenrootedinexperience ○ Personalvs.Mediainfluence:  Contactw/pplmoreinfluentialthanmedia  Companiesusedword-of-mouththroughviralmarketing&creatingabuzz  Mediainfluence:mediainfoflowstoopinionleaderstorestofppl □ Opinionleaders=pplperceivedasexperts  Morelifelike=morepersuasive  Msgsbestcomprehended&recalledwhenwritten  Comprehensionimportantpartofpersuasion: □ Difficultmsgsmorepersuasivewhenwritten • Audience ○ Moderateself-esteemeasiesttoinfluence ○ Lowself-esteem:slowtocomprehendmsg ○ Highself-esteem:comprehendfastbutmightntbelieve ○ Age:  Lifecycleexplanation:attitudeschange&becomeconservativew/age  Generationalexplanation:pplholdontoattitudesfrmchildhood,buttimeschange □ Moresupported  Teens-20s = formativeyears  Culturalchangessomtimesoverrideageinflexibility  Endoflifecycle=moresusceptibletochangeb/cdeclineinattitudestrength ○ Thoughts:  Forewarnedpplthinkofcounterargumentsbeforehand=lesslikelytobepersuaded  Distraction: □ Divertsattentionfrmcounterarguments □ Veryeffectivewhenargumentsimple □ Sometimesdistractionmakesprocessinghard  Issueswhichinvolveselfusuallyelicitlotsofthinking  Stimulatethoughtthrough □ Rhetoricalquestions Multiplespeakers Rhetoricalquestions □ Multiplespeakers □ Makingpplfeelresponsiblefrevaluating/passingonmsg □ Repeatingmsg □ Getppl'sundistractedattention  Stimulatingthinkingmakesstrongmsgsmorepersuasive,weakmsgslesspersuasive Extremepersuasion: • Morepersonalcommitment=moreneedtojustifyit • Foot-in-the-door • Persuasiveelements ○ Communicator  Charismatic  Trustworthy  Credible  Middle-classwhitepeopleeasiertorecruittocultsb/cverytrusting ○ Message  Vivid,emotionalmessages  Warmof group ○ Audience  Recruits=young  Pplwhoareat a turningpoint=have needstowhichcultanswers Groupeffects: • Cultstypicallyseparatepplfrmprevioussocialsupportsystems • Isolateinagroupw/ otherpplincult • Leadsto"socialimplosion" ○ Loseaccessto counterarguments ○ Groupoffersreality ○ Groupdefinesperson • Stress&emotionalarousalnarrowattention ○ Pplmoresusceptibletopoorlyformedarguments • Forma groupof two:reinforceeachother'sthinking ○ =folieadeux • Needtointimidatesometimes • Persuasionusedfrpsychotherapy: ○ Supportiverelationshipinsocialsetting ○ Offerofexpertise&hope ○ Newperspective/rationaleonperson'ssituation ○ Setofritualstoleadsto newhappiness Howcan persuasionberesisted? • Publiclyassertyourposition ○ Strengthensyourcommitmenttoit • Whenattackingaperson'sargument,drivethemtostrongercommitmenttotheiropinion ○ Helpsthemdevelopcounterarguments =attitudeinoculation ○ Poisonparasite:usedtoeffectivelyntbepersuaded  Usecuescoupledw/counterargumenttohelpitcometomind Inoculationchildrenagainstpeerpressureto smoke: • Teensmokingreducedbyroleplays&posterreactions • Helpstobetrainedagainstpeerpressureresistance Inoculationagainstadvertising: • Teensdevelopinitialbrandchoicewhichtransfersontoadulthood • Youngchildren(under8) ○ Haveproblemsdistinguishingcommercialsfrmreallife ○ Can'tunderstandpersuasiveintent ○ Trustads completely ○ Desireadvertisedproducts • Inoculationseffectivebutinsufficient • Inoculationseffectivebutinsufficient Implications: • Bestwayto stopbrainwashingisnotreinforceownbeliefs ○ Showpersonallkindsofbeliefs&reasonings ○ Inneffectiveappealsbetterthannoappealsatall Foot-in-the-door: • Whencommittingtosmallfavour=perceiveactto beowndoing ○ That'swhytheycommitto biggerfavours Low-ball: • Worksevenwhenpeopleawareofprofitmotive Chapter9:Altruism March-11-13 5:44 AM Altruism:oppositeofselfishness • Altruisticperson: ○ Concerned&helpfulevenwhennobenefitsareofferedinreturn Socialexchangetheory: • Humaninteractionsgovernedbysocialeconomics • Minimaxstrategy ○ Minimizecosts ○ Maximizereward • Ntconsciouslymonitoringthese,buttheseconsiderationscanpredictourbehaviour • e.g.Socialexchangeofgettingsomethingwhendonatingtocharity ○ Eventhoughwouldnevergobuyproductontheirown Rewards: • External:yougivetoget ○ e.g.Wantto helppplmoreattractivetoget theirapproval • Internal:helpingincreasesself-worth ○ e.g.Peoplefarfromhomegivemoretipstowaiters=strangers ○ Doinggoodincommunity=positiveimpactonlife ○ Problem:becomesexplaining-by-naming=circulararguments ○ Egoism:self-interestmotivatesallbehaviour  Toavoidcircularity=rewards& costs independentofhelpingbehaviour Internalrewards: • Ifsomeone'sdistresscausesarousal=youwillgetdistressed ○ Toreduceyourdistress,helpothers • Guilt: ○ Ppldoanythingpossibletorelieveguiltto  Improveselfimage  Improvepublicimage  Reduceprivateguilt ○ Experiment:  Studententersexpwantingcoursecredit  PrevioussubjecttellsstudentallanswersB  Whenaskedifstudentknowsanythingaboutexperiment,saysno  Lateraskedtovolunteertime  Volunteerslotsoftimeifguilty&lied ○ Morelikelytowanttohelpifotherpeopleknowaboutmisdeeds ○ Ifguiltrelieved=helpingdecreases ○ Helpingincreasesevenifguilty/negativefeelingsfrmunrelatedthing ○ Exceptions:  Anger  Depression  Grief  **mostlymakepersongiveattentiontoselfmore • FeelGood,dogood: ○ Happypeople=helpfulpeople Socialnorms: • Reciprocity ○ Returnhelpwhenpeoplehelpus ○ Keepscommunityconnectionshealthy ○ Pplmorelikelytohelpwhentheyknowrelationshipwillbesustained ○ Whenpplcan'treciprocate=feeldemeanedwhenacceptinghelp  Pplw/highself-esteemdon'tseekhelp  Gettinghelpyoudidn'taskfor=takesself-esteemdown • Socialresponsibilitynorm ○ Pplshouldhelppplwhoneedhelp&can'treciprocatew/oexpectingfuturereciprocation ○ India=collectivistculture  Supportsthismore ○ Pplhelpneedyppl  Eveniftheyremainanonymous  Expectnoreward ○ Pplhelpmoreifneedinessisduetochanceasopposedtoownnegligence  Ideaofgivingpplwhattheydeserve ○ Ifattributionsinvokesympathy=you'llhelp Evolutionarypsychology: • Ancestralsurvivalpredisposesustoact inwaysthat helpsgenesurvival • Kinprotection: Friendsorneighbours? ○ Geneticallyidenticaltwinsmoresupportivethanfraternaltwins ○ Similarphysicalcharacteristics=morehelping  Similargenes ○ Genessharemorew/neighboursthanw/foreigners ○ Ingroupethnichelpingmorelikely • Reciprocity ○ Failuretoreciprocateispunishedinsociety ○ Worksbestinsmallisolatedgroups Bigcitieslesshelpfulbclesschanceofreciprocation ○ Bigcitieslesshelpfulbclesschanceofreciprocation ○ Groupsofaltruistssurvivebetterthangroupsofnon-altruists  Humansvs.Otheranimals="usvs them" ○ Humansocietiesevolvedethics&religiontocombatournaturalselfishness? Comparingaltruismtheories: Theory LevelofExplanation MutualAltruism Intrinsic Socialnorms Sociological Reciprocity Socialresponsibility Socialexchange Psychological Externalrewards Internalrewards Evolutionary Biological Reciprocity Kinselection Genuinealtruism: • Ifattachedtosomeone=feelempathy ○ Difffrmself-interest ○ =actuallyselfless • Feelempathytowards ○ Family ○ Pplweidentifywith ○ Focussingonotherperson'sdistresscompletely • Day-oldinfantscrymorewhenhearingotherinfantscry • BUT ○ Empathymakesusfeelsad ○ Ifwefindoutthat somethingelsewillalleviatesadness=ntespeciallyhelpful ○ Self-identitycollective&personal  Helpotherswhenweseeourselvesinthem  Toboostown collectiveself-identity • Findingssupportingempathy ○ Empathyincreaseshelpingtorivalgroupstoo ○ Whenempathyaroused  Helpwhentheyknownooneelseseeshelping WHATDOES THIS MEAN? MOOD FIXING?  Concerncontinuesuntilpersonishelped  Ifunsuccessful,stillfeelbadeventhoughnottheirfault ○ Pplwillwanttohelpevenif"theybelievetheirdistressedmoodhasbeentemporarilyfrozenbyamood- fixingdrug" Whohelps? • Altruismheavilybasedonsituation • Personalitydoesn'tpredictspecificevents ○ Butavg ofactionsacross time • Pplhelpmorewhoare ○ Emotional ○ Empathetic ○ Self-efficacious • Pplwhodolotsofself-monitoring ○ Morehelpfuliftheythinkhelpfulnesswillberewarded ○ Bcthey'reattunedtoppl'srxns • Menmorelikelytohelpindangeroussituations • Womenmorelikelytohelpin: ○ Safesituations ○ Riskdeath ○ Volunteerw/aidagencies Howto increasehelping: • Reduceambiguity+increaseresponsibility ○ Personalinfluencethatreducesambiguity=veryimportant Areverbalalwaysbetterthannonverbaldoe? ○ Blooddonorsusuallydonatingbloodbcsomeoneelseinvitedthemto ○ Nonverbalappealseffectivewhenpersonalized ○ Hitchhikersgetridesmorebylookingdriverineye=morepersonalized ○ Bystanderswhoarenotanonymoustoeachotherwillhelpmore  Reduceviaconvo,smile,name/ageintros ○ Whenoneexpectstomeetvictim+witnessesagain=morehelp ○ Personaltreatmentmakespplmoreself-aware=moreattunedtoownaltruism  e.g.Wearingnametags  e.g.Pedestrianswhosepictureswastakenmorelikelytohelp • Guilt&concernfr self-image ○ Byheighteningppl'sawarenessofwhatthey'redoingwrong=increasehelping Whywouldpplgivebymailifaskedfrsmallamt? ○ Pplcareaboutpublicimage=willagreetohelpingwhenotherpplaround ○ Askingfrcontributionsthatareviewedbysocietyassmall=increasehelping  Givenolessthanpplaskedfrlargeamts ○ Ifapproachingpreviousdonors=biggestrequest=biggerdonation ○ Labelpplashelpful=increaseshelping • Socializingaltruism ○ Teachingmoral inclusion  Includediffpplincircleofppltowhichtheirmoralsapply ○ Moralexclusionhasoppositeeffect  Makesexploitationacceptable ○ Religionhelpsincludeeveryoneinmoralcirclebyincludingeveryoneinfamjams ○ Pplsecurew/self=acceptingofsocialdiversityw/ofeelingthreatened ○ Modellingaltruism ○ Betterntto publicizecheating,littering,drinking ○ Parentsmodelling=influential  = prosocialvalueorientation ○ TVhelpsmodelthistoo ○ Attributinghelpto altruisticmotives ○ Ifpplthinktheyhelpedbctheyarehelpful=morelikelytohelpinfuture ○ Ifyouprovideexternalmotivatorfrsomethingthatshouldhaveintrinsic  Underminesintrinsic ○ Ifattributetocomplianceinsteadofcompassion=won'thelpinfuture ○ Ifgivencomplimentrelatedtoself=willhelpinfuture ○ Inducepositivecommitmentfrhelping  Helpingmorelikelytofollow ○ Servicelearninginschoolpromoteshelping ○ **attitudefollowsbehaviour ○ Learningabout altruism ○ Studentslearningaboutbystanderinterventionmorelikelytohelp ○ Canteachaltruism  i.e.TV Chapter10:Aggression March-11-13 8:10 AM Whatis aggression? • Physical/verbalbehaviourintendedtocauseharm ○ Excludesunintentionalharm ○ Excludespainassideeffectofhelping • Types: ○ Social=displaysofrage  Hostile=inhumans  Goal=injury  e.g.Murders=resultofemotionaloutbursts □ Deathpenaltydoesnothingtosolveit ○ Silent=e.g.Predatorstalkingprey  Instrumental=inhumans  Aggressionthatismeanstoanotherend Theoriesofaggression: 1. Biologicaldrive 2. Naturalresponsetofrustration 3. Aggressivebehaviourislearned AggressionisBiological: InstinctTheory&Evolutionarypsychology • AggressiveE=instinctual ○ Unlearned&universal • Needstobedischarged ○ Ifnot,can bereleasedbytrigger • Explaining-by-namingflaw • Failstoaccountfr aggressivenessvariations • Discountedbcaggressionntinstinctive=happenssometimes,doesn'thappenothers • Aggressionisadaptive ○ Strategyto  Getresources  Defendagainstattack  Intimidate/eliminatemalerivals  Stopmatesfrminfidelity ○ Explainslotsofmale-maleaggression NeuralInfluences: • Somepartsofbrainelicitrage ○ e.g.Amygdala • Prefrontalcortex=emergencybrakeondeeperbrainareas ○ Lessactiveinantisocialmen Geneticinfluences: • Heredityinfluencesbrain'ssensitivitytoaggressivecues • Temperamentlaststhroughoutlifetime • Twinstudiesconfirmthis • Genespredisposesomekidstobesensitivetomaltreatment ○ Comboofboth=> aggression Biochemicalinfluences: • Bloodcheminfluencesneuralsensitivity • Alcohol: ○ Causesaggressionuponprovocation ○ Violentpplmorelikelytodrunk&becomeaggressivewhiledrunk ○ Reducesself-awareness ○ Lessabletothinkofconsequences ○ Pplassociatealcoholw/aggression • Testosterone: ○ Hormonalinfluencesstrongerinloweranimals ○ Humanaggressivenessincreasesw/moretestosterone ○ Afterage25, testosterone&aggressivenessdecreasestogether ○ Testosteronehighinviolentprisoners ○ Afterhandlinggun,testosteronerises=wanttoinflictpainmore ○ Injectingw/testosterone=doesn'tincreaseaggression  Lowtestosterone=lessaggression • Lowserotonin ○ Frontallobeshaveimpulse-controllingreceptorscontrolledbyserotonin ○ Lowserotonin=moreaggression • Biology&behaviourinteractions ○ Bothcan causeeach other Aggressionasa Responseto Frustration: • Frustration=anythingblockinggettinggoal ○ Increasedby  Motivationtogetgoalhigh  Expectationfrgratificationhigh  Blockingcomplete Direct Outwardaggression Displaced Instigationtoaggress Inwardaggression Frustration Additionalresponses (e.g.Withdrawal) • AggressiveEntalwaysdirectedtowardssource ○ Mightgetdisapproved • Candisplacetowardsotherirrelevantthings • Displacedaggressionmorelikelyif ○ Targetsharessimilarityw/instigator ○ Targetirritates Revisionstotheory: • Frustrationdoesn'tleadtoaggressionincertaincases • Iffrustrationreasonable=noaggression • Ifpersonapologizes+acceptsresponsibility=noaggression • Frustrationcausesanger=readinesstoaggress ○ Bcsomeonewhofrustratescouldhaveacteddifferently ○ Frustratedppl+aggressivecues=aggression Frustration& deprivation: • Frustrationsubjectivebasedonpersonfeelingit ○ Irrelevanttoobjectivereality • Pplmostdeprivedntmostfrustrated • Revolutions ○ Pplinmodernizingcountries=literacyincreases ○ Moreawareof materialimprovements ○ Biggergapbtwnwants& achievements=morefrustration ○ Deprivationlowersingeneral ○ Expectationshigherthanrealitydoe ○ Frustration&aggressionincrease ○ Frustrationcomesfrmgapbtwnexpectations&reality Relativedeprivation: • Frustrationincreaseswhencomparingtootherswhohavemore • Pplw/lowmorale=relativedeprivationfeeling ○ Whencomparingw/otherswhohavemorebutin thesamelevel ○ Predictrxnsofperceivedinequitiesbyminorities • Televisionaffectsthis ○ Showslotsofaffluence AggressionasLearned SocialBehaviour: • Rewardsofaggression: ○ Winningbyaggression-->learningthataggressionpays ○ Defeatscausesubmissiveness ○ Parentsencouragingaggression=causesmore ○ Terrorism=allowspowerlessppltogetattention  Publicityperpetuatesterrorism  Nopublicity=endterrorism • Observationallearning ○ Becomeaggressivebywatchingothersaggression+consequences  Lowerinhibitions  Teachhowto aggress Family Teachhowto aggress ○ Family  Parentsviolenttokids-->kidsviolenttoownkids  Nofather=moreviolence  Two-parentfamilies □ Morecare □ Positivediscipline □ Lesspoverty □ Highereducationalachievement  Aggressivelikelihoodincreasedafterparentalbreakupduringmiddlechildhood ○ Culture  Machoimagesadmired=moreaggression  Teenswhohaveseengunviolence=moreatriskfrviolence  Aggressionmostlikelywhenaroused+consequencessayit'ssafe/rewardingtoaggress Influencesonaggression: Aversiveincidents: • Frustration+aversiveexperience=aggression 1. Pain • Pain-attackresponse ○ Morecrueltyinflictedonanimal=moreanimalinflictsonothers ○ Inflictpainonanything/anyone=doesn'tmatterwhat • Physicalpain&psychological=sameresponse ○ Psychological=i.e.Frustration • Conclusion ○ Frustrationonly1kindofaversiveeventthatcancauseaggression ○ Isn'trequired 2. Heat • Linkstoaggression ○ Offensiveodours ○ Cigarettesmoke ○ Airpollution • Heat=moretiredness&aggression ○ Causesretaliativeactions ○ e.g.Driversinhotweatherhonkatcars more ○ e.g.Riotshappenmoreinsummer ○ e.g.Violentcrimesmorelikelyinhotweather • Onlycorrelationdoe 3. Attacks • Insult/attackbyanother=causeretaliation Arousal: • Bodilyarousalfeedsanyemotion ○ Dependsoninterpretation/labellingofarousalbyperson AggressionCues: • e.g.Weaponpresentation=actsas aggressivecue • Gunsprimehostilethoughts&punitivejudgements • Especiallywhenweaponperceivedastoolforviolence ○ Ntsameeffectonhunterswhoseeitas recreationaltool • Handgunsinhomemorelikelytokillhomemembersinsteadofintruders • Countriesthatbanhandguns=lowermurderrates • Suiciderateinhomesw/guns=higher • Guns=psychologicaldistancebtwnaggressor&victim MediaInfluences:Porn&SexualViolence • Mediaportrayalofsexualcoercion:women'sresistanceoverridenbypassion ○ Difffrmwhatsexualcoercionactuallyis ○ Distortsppl'sviewsofaggressiontowardswomen  Speciallymen • Perceptionsofsexualreality: ○ Mediashowsideathatwomenwelcomesexualassault  =menmoreacceptingofviolenceagainstwomen ○ Exposuretopornincreases=increasesacceptanceofrapemyth  Increasesdismissalofrapevictim'sinjuries  Increasessympathyofdomesticviolence ○ Somewomenthinksomeotherwomenlikebeingsexuallyoverpowered • Aggressionagainstwomen: ○ Correlational  Overtime,pornbecamemoreavailable=rapesincreased □ Exceptcountrieswherepornregulated  Areassellingmostsexuallyexplicitmagazines=mostrapes Sexualoffendersusepornwaymore  Sexualoffendersusepornwaymore ○ Experimental  Confirmedbyexp ○ Womenmostatrisk withmalesshowing  Promiscuousbehaviour  Hostileattitudesshowninporn • Mediaawarenesseducation: ○ Westernculturefavoursindividualovercollectiverights ○ Favoursresensitizationtomediaportrayalofwomen MediaInfluences:Television: • Televisionin98%households • Parentsdon'tknowwhatchildrenwatching • Channelsbecominguniversal ○ TVcreatingglobalculture • Womenwatchmorethanmen • Non-Whitesmorethanwhites • Preschoolers/retiredmorethanschool/working • Lesseducatedmorethanhighlyeducated • CorrelatingTV viewing&behaviour ○ Comparechildren'sTVviewingw/aggressivenesslevels ○ Thirdfactorproblemeliminated=relationshipmadecausal ○ ChildrenwhowatchaggressiveTVatyoungage= predictsaggressivebehaviourwhenolder ○ TVviewingexps:  ShowthatchildrenwatchingviolenceonTV+irl= sameeffect  Viewingviolenceamplifiesaggression  Whenattractivepersoncommitsviolencew/orepurcussions=effectiveincausingviolenceirl • WhydoesTV viewingeffectbehaviour? ○ Producesarousal=energizesotherbehaviours ○ Watchingviolencedisinhibitsviewers  Primesviewerfraggressivebehaviourbyactivatingviolence-relatedthoughts  Listeningtosexuallyviolentlyrics=sameeffect ○ Imitation=viewersre-enactwhat'sseenonTV  IfTVshowsprosocialbehaviour=thisre-enactedtoo • Television'seffectonthinking ○ Desensitization  Repeatingemotion-arousingstimulus=emotionalresponsedecreases  Youthfeelingthatmovieshavetoomuchviolencedeclined ○ Socialscripts:culturallyprovidedinstructionsonhowtoact  Moresexualactsviewed: □ Perceivepeersassexuallyactivemore □ Developsexuallysubmissiveattitudes □ Earlyintercourse ○ Alteredperceptions  Morevieweing=morelikelytofearpersonalassault&"exaggeratefrequencyofviolenceinworldaroundthem" ○ Cognitivepriming  Primesnetworksofaggression-relatedideas  Explainothers'behaviourw/hostileinterpretations  Interprethomonymsasaggressivemeaning  Recognizeaggressivewordsmorequickly  Suckspplsenergy&dampensmoodcomparedtoactiverecreation  Replacesotheractivitiesthatcouldbepartoflifestyle  Causeslessphysicalactivity  Competesw/civicparticipation? • Mediainfluences:videogames ○ Goodteachingtools=frbad &frgood ○ Increasingaccessibility ○ Violencew/lotsofrealism,engagement,impact ○ Whyit'sworsethan tv  Identifyw/&playroleofbadcharacter  Rehearseviolence  Engageinviolencestarttofinish=familarw/process  Repeatviolence  Rewardedfreffectiveaggression ○ Militaryorganizationpreparesoldiersbyattacksimulationgames ○ Playingviolentvs.Nonviolentvideogames  Increasesarousal  Increasesaggressivethinking  Aggressingfeelings  Aggressivebehavious  Decreasesprosocialbehaviours Groupinfluences: • Amplifyaggressivenessbydiffusingresponsibility • Distancingyourselffrmaggressionallowsyoutoaggressmore ○ e.g.Authoritiesorderingwar • Antisocialyouthsw/nofambonds&expectationsfracademicsuccessfindotheryouths=formgang • Self-identityoverwhelmedbygroupidentity ○ Socialcontagion=group-fedarousal,disinhibition,polarization • Massacres=socialphenomenonwherelargegrouphascollectivementality Howcan aggressionbe reduced? • Catharsis? ○ Peoplewhobelievecatharsisreactmoreaggressivelytoventtochangemood ○ Actuallyuntrue ○ Murderrateincreasesafterwar Sociallearningapproach: • Notgivepplunreachableexpectations • Rewardnonaggressivebehaviour • Childrenbecomelessaggressiveif ○ Aggresivebehaviourignored ○ Non-aggressivereinforced • Punishmentonlyworkswhen ○ Punishmentisstrong ○ Combinedw/rewardfrgoodbehaviour ○ Recipientntangry • Mostaggression=impulsive ○ Moreeffectivetopreventthantopunishpost-action • Punishment ○ Aversivestimulus ○ Coercive=don'tinternalizecoerciveactions • Aggression-replacementprogram=try to communicatebehaviourspositively • TV: ○ CanloweraggressiononTV ○ CantrainstudentsaboutnegativeinfoonTV ○ CanpersuadestudentstowatchTVless • Reduceaggressivestimuli ○ i.e.Availabilityof handguns Ingroupbias: • Moreproneto thiswheningroup=small& lowerstatus ○ a.k.a.Whenminority • Morestronglyattachedtoingroup=more prejudicewhenthreatenedbyoutgroup • Ingroupsuccess=identifymorestronglywithit ○ Speciallyifyoujusthadegoblow ○ Speciallyw/friends  Exceptifoutperformsyouonsomethingrelatedtoyouridentity • Outgroupstereotypespeakwhenyou'refeelingheavyeffectofingroupidentity Needfrstatus, self-regard&belonging: • Prejudice=psychologicallybeneficial=givessenseofsuperiority • Prejudicehigherinpplwhoseself-imagethreatened • Whenthinkingaboutdeath ○ =terror management:makingpplwhocauseanxietyinferior ○ Leadtocommunality,togetherness&altruism • Menw/lowself-acceptance ○ Don'tlikestrongwomen • Perceptionofcommonenemyunitesgroup ○ Affirmsneedtobelonginingroup • Senseofcomraderyingroupincreasediftheyallhateanothergroup • Ifpeoplefeelliketheyalreadybelong=prejudicedisappears Motivationto seetheworld as just: • Whenpplobservewrongdoing&can'tfix ○ Imageofvictimdecreases • =Just-worldphenomenon ○ Affectsperceptionofrapevictims ○ =womenwhoarerapeddeserveit • Innocentvictimthreatensppl'ssenseofjustice
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