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Lecture 1 readings.docx

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McMaster University
Paul Faure

Psych 3A03: Audition Lecture 1 Readings Hearing - We receive one input that is made up of a sum of the sounds from all of the sources in our environment - To determine sound sources, the nervous system first processes the complex sound field by translating the various physical aspects of sound into a neural code - The neural code is processed by the CNS to provide neural subsets that aid us in determining the sound sources - The auditory neural information is combined with that of the other sensory systems and that provided by experience and stored in memory, to elicit a response Normal Human Hearing - Basic physical attributes of sound: frequency, intensity, and time - Psychoacoustics: the study of the relationship between the physical attributes of sound and a subject’s sensations of these physical attributes – and perception – the study of auditory perceptions - The neural code is provided by the early, or peripheral, stages of the auditory nervous system - A communication system is described as consisting of a sender, a message, and a receiver; for humans, this is represented by speech, language, and hearing Hearing and Science - The empirical method and the observational method - Determine the functional relationship between two variables - Variables in addition to the independent variable may lead to a change in the dependent variable - Experimenter needs to control for confounding variables - Law is reserved for statements that apply to a wide range of conditions and are unlikely to change quickly Damped Vibrations - There are sources of resistance to the motion of the mass - Friction is one source of resistance that prevents the mass from continuing to vibrate forever - The vibration is said to be damped - The rate of damping is such that the ratio of each successive peak remains constant - The ratio describes how quickly the vibration is damped - The properties of mass (inertia), elasticity (spring), and resistance all contribute to the final description of the vibration - Sinusoid is not the only function or waveform that can describe sound. However, the sinusoidal function has a variety of properties that make it ideal for analyzing vibrations, including those that relate to Fourier’s theorem and harmonic motion - Angular velocity: ⁄ Sound Propagation - Sound can travel through any elastic medium that has inertia - When an object vibrates in air, the molecules tend to move in the direction the object moves - The molecules pass along a wave of motion by causing molecules next to them to move - The motion of the air molecules is propagated through the air toward the ear. When the air molecules next to the ear are moved, the eardrum is vibrated - The molecules next to the vibrating object are compressed together as the object moves outward away from its resting state, creating an area with a greater density of air molecules - The gas laws state that as the density of air molecules increases, the pressure increases - An area of condensation is generated - As the vibrating object moves in the opposite direction the air molecules will evenly fill the space the
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