Textbook Notes (363,094)
Canada (158,187)
Psychology (1,303)
PSYCH 3BA3 (49)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

Chapter 6 – The Principles of Pleasure Pleasure Principle: the demand that an instinctive need be gratified regardless of the consequences Defining Emotional Terms Affect - Aperson’s immediate, physiological response to a stimulus - The emotion appraised after an event occurs whether pleasurable or painful o Experience of autonomic arousal Emotion - Emotional responses come as one becomes aware of a painful or pleasurable experience - ‘a mood is objectless, free floating, and long lasting.’ Happiness - Subjectively defined positive emotional state Subjective Well-Being - Involves the subjective evaluation of one’s current status in the world - Combination of positive affect and general life satisfaction Distinguishing the Positive and the Negative - Researcher consistently found that physiological stress harmed the body, yet still added survival value to humans o Evolutionary functions of fear and anger - PANAS-X: 20-item scale used to quantify two dimensions off affect: negative (general distress) and positive valence (joviality, self-assurance, and attentiveness) - “Can we experience negative affect and positive affect at the same time?” o Are in fact independent and have different correlates o Inversely correlated, relationships are weak and indicate independence Positive Emotions: Expanding the Repertoire of Pleasure - Dr. Isen’s findings o When experiencing mild positive emotions, more likely: 1. To help other people 2. To be flexible in our thinking 3. To come up with solutions to our problems o Coin experiment  Find coin = behave more altruistically o Physicians and candy bag  Given candy bag = better reasoning and decision making  Did not jump to conclusions - Fredrickson’s findings o Momentary Thought-Action Repertoires: Human reactions to positive emotions are more cognitive than physical  Negative emotions more associated with physical reactions (ie. Fight or flight) o Broaden-and-Build Model: suggests that positive emotions expand what an individual feel like doing at a given time  Positive emotions allow people to build resources through the increasing of creative problem solving and recognition of personal resources  Broadening an individual’s momentary thought-action repertoire - Playfulness builds: o Enduring social and intellectual resources o Higher levels of creativity o Brain development - Joy and contentment might function as antidotes to negative emotions - Positive emotions might be associated with optimal mental health and flourishing Happiness and Subjective Well-Being: Living a Pleasurable Life Age-Old Definitions of Happiness - Theories of happiness o Need/goal satisfaction theories  We are happy because we reached our goals o Process/activity theories  Engaging in particular life activities generates happiness  Csikszentmihalyi’s “flow”, engagement of in
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