PSYCH 1X03 Chapter Notes -Headache

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10 Dec 2012
Department
Professor
Categories And Concepts
- Two cognitive mechanisms: attention and memory
- Attention helps you to focus finite mental resources on key parts of the active
scene
- Memory helps you recall specific behaviours, which are appropriate to your
current needs
Categorization
- Without the cognitive ability to categorize, every sensory experience would be
completely unique, thus making you unable to draw connections with the past and
being forced to make unique decisions on even the most routine actions
- Ex. Sumit wakes up with a headache and categorizes the situation in “hangovers”
- With previous experience, he concludes that his current condition is best treated
with lots of water and quietness
Illusion Of The Expert: Feeling that something must be simple because you’re so good
at it.
- Susceptible to this when dealing with simple categories
Rules
- When asked to define rules, you may find it difficult to properly exclude and
include items for category membership
- When given a test stimulus, you can easily decide membership
- Suggests that humans have an internal representation of categories that’s
independent of the rule we try to define
Prototype: An internal representation of the category.
- Ex. A prototype of cars would be one single representation of a car
- Thought the be the average or best member of a category
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