PSYCH 1X03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Cocktail Party

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
McMaster University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Page:
of 2
Chapter 5: Attention and Memory
Flashbulb memories: vivid memory; having a “live” quality feeling almost as if a person is looking at a
photograph of a moment locked in time
Section 1: introduction to attention
Attention: taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several
simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought
Section 2: tools to measure attention
Cocktail party effect
Despite competing background noises, a listener can focus on a single channel and still pick up
relevant salient information from the background ( someone calls your name)
( Broadbent) Dichotic listening paradigm: headphones are worn where one message is
delivered through one ear, and another message delivered to another The listener is supposed
to immediately repeat the message in the attended ear
o Subjects were still able to report the physical features such as pitch, tone, etc.
o Items selected for attention are better perceived and later remembered that items that
are not attended
o Reflexive reaction/ automatic
Bottom-up and Top-down processing
raw data is gathered through senses: bottom up
information already stored in memory : top down
bottom up processing: attention is captured by salient change in the environment
o police sirens, telephone ring, fire alarm, name being called
top down processing: strategically direct your attention to match your current goals and
expectations from past experience through memory
o purposely placing keys at front desk so you remember where you put it
o controlled
Orienting and the spatial cueing paradigm
orienting: attention movies across a scene
over attend: here you attend is where your looking ( accident, look at that spot)
covert orienting: attend to things without looking ; “ invisible” shifts of attention
posner’s spatial cueing paradigm
o stare at presented fixation cross that is flanked by two boxes
o brightening of one of the boxes acts as a cue to your attention, after brief interval
following this cue a target is presented
o