PSYCH 1XX3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Social Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Bipolar Disorder

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24 Mar 2015
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Psychological Disorders
Defining Abnormality
1. Deviance
-Thoughts, emotions and behaviours deviate from what is acceptable from their culture
-Not necessarily wrong, just different
2. Distress
-Negative feelings associated with their disorders
-May not always feel distress (ex; Sociopaths feel little to no guilt about their behaviour)
3. Dysfunction
-Possess dysfunction or maladaptive behaviour = Inability to perform everyday functions
-Can lead to failed relationships, job loss…
4. Danger
-Dangerous or violent behaviour to oneself or to others
Labeling Theory: Application of a deviant label to an individual can change their self perception, or
perception by others and decrease social opportunities
On Being Sane in Insane Places
8 sane people faked symptoms of schizophrenia by saying they heard voices and only 1 was
admitted into a psych warden. Once admitted, they experienced dehumanization and neglect
even after adopting their normal behaviour and saying the voices stopped.
Medical Students’ Disease: Medical students being to perceive themselves or others around them to
have symptoms of a disease they are studying
Classifying Disorders: The DSM 5
Symptom- characteristic of a person’s actions
Syndrome- collection of related symptoms from a single person
-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): classification system
-Categorize and describe the mental disorder
-Allow clinicians to use a common language when discussing their findings
DSM Categorization
1. DSM-5 Basics
-Introduction to manual, the manual’s history and guidelines on how to use it effectively
2. Diagnostic Criteria and Codes
-Diagnostic criteria for all mental disorders and their diagnostic codes
3. Emerging Measures and Models
-Contains promising information and research that needs further scientific evidence
Epidemiology- study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Prevalence- % of population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period
Prognosis- forecast about the probable course of an illness
Comorbidity- simultaneous presence of two chromic diseases in a patient
Criticisms
-Represents a categorical classification model (you either have the disease or not); vs. a
dimensional classification model (a degree of a certain category)
-High degree of comorbidity among many diagnoses
Depressive Disorders
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-Class of disorders marked by intense and prolonged emotional disturbances that can affect
physical, perceptual, social and thought processes
-Come and go, and are scattered among periods of normal function
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Unipolar Depression
-Decreased mood, loss of motivation, significant fluctuations in weight, lack of energy and suicidal
thoughts
-Symptoms must be experienced continuously for 2 weeks
-Experience neurocognitive deficits: difficulties with memory, attention and decision-making…
-Occurs 2x more in females than males
oFemales engage in ruminative coping: why am I feeling this way?; Males try to distract
themselves from their feelings
oFemales face more adversity than males
oFemales are more sensitive to discrepancies in beliefs for themselves and ideals they
perceive others hold for them
Heterogeneity and Variability within Depressive Disorders
-Two people diagnosed with the same disorder may experience different symptoms
-Persistent Depressive Disorder/ Dysthymia- similar but less severe set o MDD symptoms
-Postpartum Depression- depression that occurs within 4 weeks of childbirth; mothers may
commit infanticide
-Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)- depression that follows a specific season
Etiology- cause and development of disorders
Bipolar and Relation Disorders
Bipolar Disorder (BD)
-Cycles of depression and mania in patients
-Mania: period of elevated mood, or become argumentative or violent
1. Bipolar I: Least one maniac and one depressive episode
2. Bipolar II: One hypomanic episode and one depressive episode
Rapid-cycling- Occurrence of 4+ mood episodes during a span of 12 months
Cyclothymic Disorder/Cyclothymia- chronic but mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance; experience
numerous episodes of hypomanic and depressive episodes over 2 years
Etiology of Depressive and Bipolar Disorders
-Negative life events can trigger depression
-One can be genetically vulnerable to the disorders, but the environment can determine if
the person develops it or not
oConcordance rates: Traits within twins (MDD rate in identical twins is 65%)
-Levels of neurotransmitters: serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine
-Perfectionism is associated with depressive symptoms
oMultidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) assess the three types of perfectionism
Self-oriented: high expectations of oneself
Other-oriented: demanding perfection from others
Socially prescribe: perceive others have high expectations of them
Personality orientations associated with depression:
-Introjective depression: feelings of guilt, worthlessness or failed to live up to expectations
-Anaclitic depression: helplessness, weakness, abandonment or dependence on others
Personality types associated with depression:
-Sociotophy: inordinate investment in interpersonal relationships
-Autonomous- individual prefers to preserve independence and freedom of choice
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Interpersonal Model
-People with depression lack social skills to elicit normal positive social reinforcement form others,
thus perpetuating their depression
-Interacting with depressed individuals can induce feelings of depression, anxiety and hostility
Cognitive factors to depression:
1. Depressogenetic Schemata- see and experience the world in a negative fashion
2. Negative Cognitive Triad- biased toward negative interpretations of themselves, the
world an dtheir futures
3. Overgeneralization- someone makes a broad conclusion drawn from a single, trivial
event
Learned Helplessness Theory: Dogs were administered unavoidable, aversive shocks. Dogs tried to
escape but couldn’t so they gave up and passively accepted the painful shocks.
-Pessimistic explanatory style- people attribute any setbacks they experience to be personal
(its my fault), global (this changes everything) and stable (things cant change, they will always be
this way) causes
Hopelessness Theory: depressed people feel that desirable outcomes will not happen and undesirable
outcome swill occur, and they cannot change these outcomes
*Must already have a pessimistic cognitive style and experienced a traumatic event to be considered
hopeless
Anxiety Disorders
-Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, GAD
-Constant, severe and inescapable anxiety and worry for everyday problems to life in general
-People experience symptoms over the course of their life, and its elevated during times of stress
-Occurs more frequently in females than males
Phobic Disorders
-Anxiety disorder with persistent and irrational fear of an object or a situation that presents no
realistic danger
-Phobic reactions tend to be accompanied by physical reactions
-Phobias can be social or specific
-Social anxiety disorder: fear of public appearances during humiliation or embarrassment
oIf they force themselves to perform, then they perceive that their performance was bad,
which will only propagate the fear
-Specific phobias: intense fear of specific objects, places or situations (that are not social)
oMore frequent in females than males
oCategories: animals, natural environment, blood-injury-injection, situational, other
Panic Disorder
-Panic attacks involve intense feelings, dizziness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations…
-People who’ve experienced panic attacks worry when they’ll et their next attack = agoraphobia
(fear of being in a situation where escape may be difficult)
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
Biological Factors:
-May occur due to genetic variability
-Some studies suggest genetic inheritance of neuroticism
-Anxiety sensitivity (AS): individuals are predisposed to a fear of anxiety-related sensations that
can make them vulnerable to anxiety disorders
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