PSYCH 2C03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Impact Bias, Daniel Wegner, Richard E. Nisbett

29 views8 pages
Published on 20 Apr 2013
Department
Alena Tran Social Psychology Textbook Notes
Fourth Canadian Edition
Myers-Spencer-Jordan
Chapter 2: Self Concept
Examples of what’s happening in the world around us and what’s going on in our heads:
Social surroundings shape how we think about ourselves
Self-interest colors our judgments about others and ourselves (ex. Few divorced
people blame themselves)
Looking good to others motivates our social behavior
Self Concept: Who Am I?
Intuition
Some people seem to “just know” who they are
Powers and perils of intuition
Intuitionists believe that important information is immediately available apart from our
conscious analysis.
However, skeptics say that intuition is “knowing we are right whether we are or not”.
Research suggests that unconscious indeed controls much of our behavior.
“Most of a person’s every day life is determined not by their conscious intentions and
deliberate choices but by mental processes that are put into motion by features of the
environment and that operate outside of conscious awareness and guidance.”
Ex. When the light turns red, we react and hit the brake before consciously deciding to do
so.
We know more than we know we know.
Thinking is partly controlled (reflective, deliberate, conscious)
And as well as partly automatic (impulsive, effortless, and without our awareness)
Automatic, intuitive thinking occurs not “on-screen” but off screen, out of sight,
where reason does not go.
Example:
Schemas mental templates guide our perceptions and interpretations of our
experience.
Emotional reactions often instantaneous before there is time for deliberate
thinking.
Ancestors who intuitively feared a sound in the bushes did usually fear nothing
but they were more likely to survive to pass their genes down to us than their
more deliberative cousins.
Some things we remember explicitly (consciously), but other things we remember
implicitly, without consciously knowing and declaring that we know
Blind sight
Subliminal stimuli may nevertheless have intriguing effects
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Alena Tran Social Psychology Textbook Notes
Fourth Canadian Edition
Myers-Spencer-Jordan
Intuitions about the self
Why did you choose your university? Why did you fall in love with that special person?
We produce plausible answers
Causes are subtle, our self-explanations are often wrong
Richard Nisbett and Stanly Schachter (1966)
Method: Gave participants fake pills in which they told them that after they took it they
would feel heart palpitations, breathing irregularities, and butterflies.
Results: People who took the fake pill tolerate more shock than people who didn’t take
the pill because they attributed their shock symptoms to the pill.
Debrief: When asked why they withstood the shock they didn’t mention the pill. When
they were told about the pill they insisted, “I didn’t even think about the pill”
Daniel Wegner The Illusion of Conscious Will people will feel that they have
willed an action when their action-related thought precedes a behavior that seems
otherwise unexplainable
Predicting our behavior
People also err when predicting their behavior
Many of us are vulnerable
Self predictions are hardly accurate (ex. Relationships)
People who know you can probably predict your behavior better than you can
The best advice to improve self predictions is to consider your past behavior in
similar situations. To predict your future, consider your past.
We can sometimes better predict people’s behavior by asking them to predict
others’ actions.
Allowing time to pass without allowing people to actually think about the
decision would allow the automatic or unconscious thought to influence the
decision.
Unconscious intuitions might be better guides than we have previously thought
Predicting our feelings
Many of life’s big decisions involve predicting our future feelings
Ex. Would marrying this person led to lifelong contentment?
Sometimes we know how we feel; other times we may misinterpret our responses
Examples:
When not aroused, one easily mispredicts how one will feel and act when aroused
Hungry shoppers do more impulse buying
Only one in seven occasional smokers predicts that they will be smoking in five
years
People overestimate how much their well-being would be affected by warmer
winters, losing weight, more television channels, or more free time
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Alena Tran Social Psychology Textbook Notes
Fourth Canadian Edition
Myers-Spencer-Jordan
Impact bias: overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events
In actuality, faster than we expect, the emotional traces of such good tidings
evaporate
We are especially prone to impact bias after NEGATIVE events
In focusing the negative event we discount the importance of everything else that
contributes to happiness and so over predict our enduring misery
East Asians are less susceptible to the impact bias
The wisdom and illusions of self-analysis
We are unaware of much that goes on in our minds
We are more aware of the results of our thinking than its process
Ex. In an experiment people chose one of two art posters to take home. Those asked first
to identify reasons for their choice preferred a humorous poster. But a few weeks later,
they were less satisfied with their choice than were those who just went by their gut
feelings and generally chose the other poster
We have a dual attitude system: our implicit attitudes (automatic) regarding
someone or something often differ from our consciously controlled, explicit
attitudes.
Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit
attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits
Fitting In: Looking to others
How we are viewed by others and how we fit into our social groups are central to how we
define ourselves.
- When people think well of us, it helps us think well of ourselves
The looking glass self: our using others as mirrors as a mirror for perceiving ourselves
Our ancestors fate depended on what others thought of them; survival increased
when protected by their group
Social comparison
Our comparisons to others are a strong determinant of our self-views
Experiment: Exposed first and fourth year accounting students to a newspaper
involving a star student who’s in accounting that won numerous of awards.
First year: high super star comparison
Fourth year: high no comparison
First years looked up at him as a role model, feeling inspire that maybe one day
will be them; fourth years didn’t think they were comparable to him
Social comparison: evaluating ones abilities and opinions by comparing oneself
to others
They shape our identities as rich or poor, smart or dumb, tall or short.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Examples of what"s happening in the world around us and what"s going on in our heads: Social surroundings shape how we think about ourselves. Self-interest colors our judgments about others and ourselves (ex. Looking good to others motivates our social behavior. Some people seem to just know who they are. Intuitionists believe that important information is immediately available apart from our conscious analysis. However, skeptics say that intuition is knowing we are right whether we are or not . Research suggests that unconscious indeed controls much of our behavior. When the light turns red, we react and hit the brake before consciously deciding to do so. Thinking is partly controlled (reflective, deliberate, conscious) And as well as partly automatic (impulsive, effortless, and without our awareness) Automatic, intuitive thinking occurs not on-screen but off screen, out of sight, where reason does not go. Schemas mental templates guide our perceptions and interpretations of our experience.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.