PSYCH 2C03 Chapter Notes -Freeriding, Groupthink, Stereotype

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Published on 10 Feb 2014
Department
Social Psych:
Studies influences of situations/people
How people think about, influence/relate to each other
Hidden Values:
Good life: Maslow's self-actualization ideas based on his heroes
Psychologist observes behaviour
Forming concepts:
Confusing what is with what should be
Naturalistic fallacy
Hindsight bias: feeling of thinking something is common sense after being told about it
Idea that summarize facts which are observable
Allow theories to be tested
Give research drxn
Give theories practical application
Imply hypotheses: testable predictions
Theory: integrated set of principles explaining/predicting observations
Surveys:
Get random sample = good fr representation purposes
E.g. Magazine gets phone #s of ppl frm telephone books/auto registrations about
election
Inaccurate b/c ppl who can't afford didn't respond
Unrepresentative samples important to avoid
Bias:
Ppl want to remain consistent w/ ideals expressed
e.g. First question: Japan set restrictions on American products => lots say no
First question: America, then Japan => lots say yes
Order of questions
Response options change subject's view
Response bias
Ppl want experimenters to view them in +ve light
Implicit measures used to ensure they don't know
Social desirability bias
Can affect ppl's opinions
Can interact w/ knowledge of issue to result in no effect
Wording of question
Experimental research:
Often better to create simulations of real world
Random assignment = good equalizer to eliminate effects of extraneous factors
Ethics:
Mundane realism: degree to which experiment similar to everyday situation
Experimental realism: absorbing & involving participants
Ppl should feel good about themselves leaving experiment
Ppl should learn something about social psych
Generalizations:
In real life, all things usually nt equal
Subjects of exp usually uni students
What is diff btwn field experiment & correlational study?
Chapter 1: Intro
January-22-13
4:01 AM
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Types of Conformity:
Outward
Doing something w/o believing in it
Compliance
In response to explicit demand
To reap reward, avoid punishment
Obedience
Believing in what group persuaded you to do
Acceptance
Suggestability:
Work especially well when we think ppl in track are like us
e.g. Laugh tracks
Being around happy people can make you happy
Mood linkage
Ppl unconsciously mimic others
Induces others to like them when they are more similar
Enhances social bonds
Leads to more money donated to charity
Chameleon effect
Werther effect:
Suicides increase after well-publicized suicides in specific area where well-publicized
What breeds obedience? (Milgram):
Gas chambers in Nazi germany created to dispersonalize death
Distance causes less obedience
Ppl comply more when touched
Closeness of experimenter
Legitimacy of exp
Letigimacy of attached institution
If group nt doing it, individual acts on original instinct to not do it
Liberating effects of group influence
Foot-in-the-door
Gradually increased shocks
Ppl asked to do administration fr Milgram exp = high obedience
Compartmentalization of evil
FAE:
But ppl are product of characterstics AND situation
Attribute ppl's actions to their characteristics
Factors increasing conformity:
Minority opinion frm a diff group causes less conformity
Higher status = less conformity
Well-dressed ppl = more
Status
Ppl conform publicly
Public response
When made public commitment, don't conform, even when everyone else says opposite, publicly
Commitment
Who conforms?
Good predictor of average actions
Personality can't predict behaviour in individual situation
Predicts behaviour when social influence weak
Culture
Do we want to be different?
Ppl rebel when social influence effects freedom
Reactance
Understanding of why large group of ppl have certain opinion affects our willingness to conform
If large group of ppl been coerced = probs wont conform
Attributions fr consensus
In western culture, discomfort also comes frm too much sameness
Asserting uniqueness
Minority influence:
Minority that sticks to their position
Minority slowness effect = minority views expressed less quickly than majority
Stimulate creative thinking b/c dissent
Consistency
Persistence/consistency => confidence
Taking head seat at table = same effect
Self-confidence
Chapter 6: Conformity
January-22-13
5:25 AM
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Taking head seat at table = same effect
Specially in opinion matters as opposed to fact
Self-assurance induces rethinking by majority
Consistent minority helps majority express doubts or convert to minority
Ppl who convert = more persuasive than consistent minority voice
Newcomers exert influence b/c attention received
Defections frm majority
Bystander effect (Latane & Darley's 5-step model):
Notice
Illusion of transparency: misinterpretation of others' ability to understand what we're feeling inside
Pluralistic ignorance: ppl reject a norm privately, accept it publicly
Interpretations: lady who screams "I don't know you" gets more help than "I don't know why I married you" --> ppl don't interfere
in marriage situations
Interpret as emergency
Ppl say they would act the same individually as in group = poor predictor of reality
Diff btwn individuals & groups minimized when situation very clearly needs help
Ppl less likely to help frm city b/c sensory overload/compassion fatigue
Ppl from countries less advanced, more sympathetic = more likely to help
If observing others' facial expressions = more likely to help
If in group of friends, people help more than individuals
Assume responsibility fr helping
Decide what you should do to help
Decide how to do it
More people = people less likely to
Groupthink:
**directive leadership & insulation frm dissent
Overestimate group's abilities:
Illusion of invulnerability: belief that nothing bad could happen to group
Unquestioned belief in group's morality: Ignore ethical issues b/c assume group is inherently moral
Close-mindedness:
Rationalization: discards challenges by justifying decisions together
Stereotyped view of opponent: trying to beat 'imagined opponent'
Pressures to uniformity
Conformity pressure: Group members ridicule ppl who doubt
Self-censorship: Members withhold doubt bc everyone else in consenus
Illusion of unanimity
Mindguards: ppl who protect group frm vital conflicting info
Preventing groupthink:
Open leadership
Impartiality
Assign devil's advocate
Subdivide group
Welcome critique frm outside experts
Call 2nd chance meetings
Brainstorming:
Ppl generate more creative ideas individually
Free-riding
Some ppl scared of voicing opinions
In groups
Ppl feel more effective in groups b/c they disproportionately credit their ideas to themselves
Group --> then solo --> allows ideas to be primed by group
Interact by writing --> everyone active at once --> brainwriting
Electronic brainstorming --> stops verbal traffic jam
Strategies
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