PSYCH 2C03 Chapter Notes - Chapter Final: Premarital Sex, Casual Sex, Alcohol Intoxication

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Published on 12 Dec 2014
Attitudes - an evaluation of a person, object, or idea
Attitudes are evaluative in that they contain a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE reaction toward
someone or something.
Sometimes people can have ambivalent attitudes
But are never just neutral observers of the world but are constant evaluators of what they
Affective - consisting of emotional reactions toward the attitude object
Cognitive - consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object
Behavioural - consisting of actions or observable behaviour towards the attitude
Three Components of ATTITUDES
Focus is primarily on the WAY that attitudes are created by people's affective,
cognitive, and behavioural experiences.
Any given attitude can be based MORE ON one type of experience than another
Affective beliefs come from VALUES originating from MORAL or
Topics are abortion, death penalty, premarital sex
When there is value-expression condition "help others live" = +correlation
between altruistic values and favourable attitudes towards donating to cancer
They do not result from a rational examination of issues
They are not governed by logic (persuasive arguments seldom change
the attitude)
They are often linked to people's values, trying to change them
challenges those values
Attitudes based on AFFECTIVE component have THREE THINGS IN
Affectively Based Attitudes - attitude based primarily on people's emotions and
feelings about the attitude object
The purpose of this kind of attitude is to classify the PLUSES and MINUSES of
an object so we can quickly tell whether it is worth our while or not
Cognitively Based Attitudes - attitudes based primarily on a person's belief about the
properties of the attitude object
Behaviourally Based ATTITUDE
Well, I guess I like it because I am always there working out
or studying
"How do you feel about going to the gym"
Under certain circumstances people do not know how they feel until they
see how they behave.
Self-Perception Theory (chapter 5)
Behaviourally Based Attitudes - attitude based primarily on observations of how one
behaves towards an attitude object
It turns out that when attitudes are negative towards particular groups, they are
OFTEN cognitively based.
Beliefs that these groups threaten their value system
Attitudes towards homosexuals and Pakistanis were based on a kind of cognition
Attitudes towards other studied culture were positive - more likely to be based on
Where Do Attitudes Come From?
The Nature and Origin of Attitudes
Chapter 6 - Attitudes and Attitude Change (all but 163-175)
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Different Attitudes Have Different Bases
Once an attitude develops, it can exist at two levels
"What is your opinion imposing carbon taxes?"
Explicit Attitude - attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
How nervous a racially unbiased (explicit) white middle-class man would act
around Pakistanis (implicit)
Implicit Attitude - attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and times
People categorize words or pictures of a computer
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
Variety of measurement tools have been developed that measure people's implicit
Implicit and Explicit attitudes are positively correlated when people are asked to
reflect on their feelings about the attitude object
Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes
Relationship between attitudes and behaviours is NOT nearly as straightforward as you
might expect.
People's attitudes are poor predictors of their behaviour
The Theory of Planned Behaviour
Attitudes can predict behaviours BUT under certain conditions
Women asked about their general attitude towards birth control pills
Specific Condition
Women asked about their attitude towards using birth control pill in next two
General attitude did not correlate to those women taking the pill, in 2 year after
the survey
The more specific the question, the better attitude and behaviour correlations
Specific Attitude
How the people they care about will view the behaviour in question
Subjective Norms
The ease with which people can perform the behaviour
The higher the ease, the greater the correlation between attitude and
Perceived Behavioural Control
Personal Attitudes are better predictor of behavioural intentions in
Culture plays a role in the importance place on these determinants of behavioural
Theory of Planned Behaviours - that the best predictors of a person's planner, deliberate
behaviours are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviours, subjective norms, and
perceived behavioural control
When Attitudes Predict Behaviour
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