PSYCH 3CC3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Sex Offender, Risk Assessment, Illusory Correlation

118 views7 pages
5 Dec 2013
Department
Professor
Psych 3CC3: Forensic Psychology
Chapter 10: Risk Assessment
What is Risk Assessment?
- Risk is regarded as a range:
Highlights the idea that probabilities may change across time
Recognizes that risk level reflects and interaction among a person’s
characteristics, background, and possible future situations that will
affect whether the person engages in violent behaviour
- Includes a prediction and management component
- Prediction:
Describes the probability that an individual will commit future
criminal or violent acts
Identify the risk factors that are related to this likelihood of future
violence
- Management:
Describes the development of interventions to manage or reduce
likelihood of future violence
Identify what treatments might reduce level of risk or what conditions
need to be implemented to manage risk
Risk Assessments: When are they Conducted?
- Civil setting:
Refers to the private rights of individuals and the legal proceedings
connected with such rights
Civil commitment requires an individual to be hospitalized
involuntarily if he or she has a mental illness and poses a danger to
him- or herself or others. In Canada, only a psychiatrist can civilly
commit someone to a hospital
Child protection contexts involves the laws that are in place to protect
children from abuse
Immigration laws prohibit the admission of individuals into Canada if
there are reasonable grounds for believing they will engage in acts of
violence or if they pose a risk to the social, cultural, or economic
functioning of Canadian society
School and labour regulations also provide provisions to prevent any
kind of act that would endanger others
Duty to warn and limits of confidentiality
- Criminal settings:
Refers to situations in which an individual has been charged with a
crime
Assessment of risk occurs at every major decision point, including
pretrial, sentencing, and release
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Disclosure of information about potential risk: when solicitor
privilege and doctor-patient confidentiality must be set aside for the
protection of members of the public
In cases where there is clear serious, and imminent danger, public
safety outweighs solicitor-client privilege
Risk assessment is a critical component of certain kinds of sentencing
decisions
Risk assessment is also required for decisions concerning release
from correctional and forensic psychiatric institutions
History of Risk Assessment
- Baxstrom and Dixon studies:
The base rate for violence was relatively low
The false positive rate was very high
Mentally disordered forensic patients were needlessly kept in
restrictive institutions based on erroneous judgments of violence risk
- Both Canadian and U.S. courts have ruled that predicitons of violence risk do
not violate the basic tenets of fundamental justice, nor are they
unconstitutional
Types of Prediction Outcomes
- True positive is a correct prediction and occurs when a person who is
predicted to be violent engages in violence
- True negative is a correct prediction and occurs when a person who is
predicted to not be violent does not act violently
- False positive is an incorrect prediction and occurs when a person is
predicted to be violent but is not
- False negative is an incorrect prediction and occurs when a person is
predicted to be nonviolent but acts violently
- Minimizing the number of false positive errors results in an increase in the
number of false negative errors
- False positive error has implications for the individual being assessed,
whereas false negative errors has implications for the society and the
potential victim.
The Base Rate Problem
- Represents the percentage of people within a given population who commit a
criminal or violent act
- Difficult to make accurate predictions when base rates are too high or too
low
- Low base rate: many false positives will occur
- Can vary depending on the group being studied, what is being predicted, and
the length of the follow-up period over which the individual is monitored
- Easier to predict frequent events than infrequent events
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.