PSYCH 3GG3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Bulimia Nervosa, Mental Disorder, Psychopathy

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
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McMaster University
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Psychology
Course
PSYCH 3GG3
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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 3 Classification & Diagnosis
Brief History of Classification
In earlier times, (19th early 20th century), there was great inconsistency in the classification of
abnormal psychology; different systems were used in different parts of the world
The DSM (Diagnosis Statistic Manuel) was first published in 1959, then updated in 68’ (DSM-II), and
again in 87’ (DSM-III), and finally in 94’ (DSM-IV)
The Diagnostic system of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR)
‘Mental Disorder’ is defined as “a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern
that occurs in and individual and that is associated with present distress (i.e. painful symptoms) or
disability (impairment in one or more areas of functioning) or with significantly increased risked of
death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.
In addition, the syndrome can’t be an expected response or culturally sanctioned response, must be a
manifestation of a behaviour, psychological, or biological dysfunction
Five Dimensions of Classification
With the introduction of the DSM-III, came the mulitaxial classification where people are rated on 5
separate dimensions:
Axis I: All diagnostic categories except for mental retardation and personality disorders
Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III: General Medical Condition
Axis IV: Psychosocial & Environmental problem
Axis V: Current level of Functioning
These five axes are for a diagnostician to consider a broad range of information
Although there are 5 axes, all abnormal behaviour is placed within the first 2 axes, the rest are to
provide additional information for the psychiatrist
Most people come to be treated for Axis I disorders, however sometimes they previously had Axis II
disorders, which is why they are separated from each other
Disorders
Disorders Diagnosed During Childhood
Separation Anxiety (anxiety from being away from home/parents)
Conduct Disorder (repeatedly violating social norms/rules)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Mental Retardation
Pervasive Developmental Disorders (including autism)
Learning Disorders (delays in acquisition of speech, grammar, reading ect.)
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder (person is deeply sad and discouraged and is likely to lose
weight/energy and have suicidal thoughts)
Mania (exceedingly euphoric, irrationally happy)
Bipolar Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Phobia
Panic Disorder (sudden intense attacks of apprehension, likely to tremble and shake)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (fear & apprehension are pervasive, persistent n’ uncontrollable)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (obsessions: thoughts; compulsions: actions)
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Acute Stress Disorder (Similar to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder but symptoms don’t last as long
Somatoform Disorders
Somatisation disorder (long history of multiple psychical complaints for which they have taken
medicine or consulted a doctor)
Conversion Disorder (report a loss of motor or sensory function i.e. paralysis, blindness, loss of
sensation
Pain Disorder (suffer from severe and prolonged pain)
Hypochondrias (misinterpretation of minor injuries for serious illnesses)
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (preoccupied with an imagined defect with their body)
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Amnesia (may forget their entire past or a particular period of time)
Dissociative Fugue (suddenly and unexpectedly travels to a new location, starts a new life, and
cannot remember his/her past identity)
Depersonalization Disorder (sever and disruptive feeling of self estrangement or unreality)
Sexual & Gender Disorders
Paraphilias (unconventional sources of sexual gratification (i.e. exhibitionism, voyeurism,
sadism, masochism)
Sexual Dysfunction (unable to complete the usual sexual response cycle)
Gender identity Disorder (extreme discomfort in their anatomical sex and identifies themselves
with the opposite sex)
Sleep Disorders
Dyssomnias (sleep is disturbed in amount (too much/too little), quality, or timing
Parasomnias (unusual events occurring during sleep)
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Factitious Disorder
Are applied to people who intentionally produce or complain of psychical or psychological symptoms,
apparently because of a psychological need to assume the role of a sick person
Adjustment Disorder
Applied to emotional or behavioural symptoms following a major life stressor, however it does not
match the criterion for any disorder in the DSM.
Impulse-Control Disorder
Intermittent Explosive Disorder (episodes of violent behaviour that results in destruction of
property/injury)
Kleptomania (steals repeatedly but not for the monetary value or use of the object)
Pyromania (person purposefully gains pleasure from setting fire to things)
Pathological Gambling
Trichotillomania (irresistible urge to pluck one’s own hair out)
Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality Disorder (person is aloof, few friends, is indifferent to praise/criticism)
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (has an overblown sense of self importance, fantasizes about
great success, requires constant attention, exploits others)
Anti-social Personality Disorder (psychopathy; starts with juvenile delinquency)
Dementias/Deliriums
Delirium (clouding of consciousness, wandering attention, incoherent stream of thought)
Dementia (deterioration of mental capacities (including Alzheimer’s and other conditions)
Amnesic Syndrome (Impairment of memory not caused by delirium or dementia)

Document Summary

In earlier times, (19th early 20th century), there was great inconsistency in the classification of abnormal psychology; different systems were used in different parts of the world. The dsm (diagnosis statistic manuel) was first published in 1959, then updated in 68" (dsm-ii), and again in 87" (dsm-iii), and finally in 94" (dsm-iv) The diagnostic system of the american psychiatric association (dsm-iv and dsm-iv-tr) In addition, the syndrome can"t be an expected response or culturally sanctioned response, must be a manifestation of a behaviour, psychological, or biological dysfunction. All diagnostic categories except for mental retardation and personality disorders. With the introduction of the dsm-iii, came the mulitaxial classification where people are rated on 5 separate dimensions: These five axes are for a diagnostician to consider a broad range of information. Although there are 5 axes, all abnormal behaviour is placed within the first 2 axes, the rest are to provide additional information for the psychiatrist.