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Chapter 11

Sociology 2R03 Chapter 11.docx

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Augie Fleras

Chapter 11: Global inequalities and globalization Introduction the globalization of inequality: the inequalities of globalization  Massive reducation in global poverty are offset by growing inequality gaps both within and between countries  The social fabric of society is further shredded by juxtaposing a scarcity of resources alongside an abundance of poverty, crime, disease, pollution, and overpopulation  Many believe the next generation will be poorer because of diminished opportunities and reduced support and services  Can a resource-depleted earth sustain more consumer demands?  To sustain the upside, it is important to manage the downside, by constructing a cooperative global polity to complement a competitive global economy  Global inequality generates problems: immoral and unjust since it violates the inherent dignity of all persons as articulated in the Preamble to the Universal Declaration oh uman rights and othen UN based covenants, global inequalities are major contributors to poverty-based injustices and abuses associated with extreme income gaps, the persistence of global inequality ensures te domination of the global north over the global south at the expense of cooperative actions across borders, and the worldwide political imbalance associated with global inequality may prove a source of social unrest and intergroup violence Case study: going bananas in the global economy: pleasing palates in the global north, wreaking havoc in the global south  Bananas Global inequality problems Poverty and income inequality Income  Countries with the highest inequality are clustered in South America and South Africa  Lowest inequality in Europe, USA and Canada medium  Excluding China and India the world income inequality flatlines Poverty  40% of the worlds population live at $2.50 a day or less  Nearly a billion are illiterate, another billion go hungry, and about one-third of the developing world population will not survive to middle age  China poverty rate fell from 80% to 10-15% accounting for ¾ of all global poverty reduction FYI- Lucky fido: it’s a pooch’s life in dogland  49$ billion on pet food every year could eliminate 8.8 million child deaths (age 5) Global environmental crisis Overpopulation  Larger families provide a margin of safety for survival I those economies without any state-based safety net for the aged or unemployed Urbanization  About half of the world’s population lives in cities  Problems related to: employment, sanitation, limited transportation, and traffic snarls, pollution, access to services, and crime  Cities are viewed as symbols of prograss, wealth, and prestge  The informality of slums provides urban dwellers with a tenuous toehold on the employment front, yet prevents people from securing long lasting economic improvmens  Cities are sites of concentrated advantages (opportunities, employment, services, and excitement) that are critical to human development The fragile planet  Disruptions: a world where increasing numbers lack access to a decent living, the dangers of pollution that disturb global chemical cycles that in turn, regulate eco- system processes, risks associated with toxic chemicals, ecological decline in which diversity diminishes as species disappear, and perils of biotic mixing that allows a SARS like scenario or microorganisms to travel or proliferate  Globak catastrophe could only be averted through stiffer political will and ongoing citizen choices  Canada is 20% of the world undeveloped area, 25% of remaining wetlands, and 20% of freshwater holdings, and 10% of forests  Human needs and ecology are linked since there is no such thing as human survival without a functioning environment Framing globalization as inequality  A revolutionary shift in doing business is now taking place; in effect offering an opportunity for some, marginalization for others, but confusion for others  The global economy is transforming from a series of local industries locked into closed national economies, to a dynamic system of integrated and cost-effective sites whose loops transcend national borders  Globalization game board that has few boundaries, the rules of the game are up for grabs, the number of players increase exponentially, occaisionally the owners will move away when the financial tap dries up, and every so often a tilted playing field may gyrate wildly out of control  Globalization: some focus on the rapid and unfettered flow of capital under a fundamentaly redesigned set of political and economic arrangments; others emphasize access to relatively cheap labour that allows different parts of production process to be performed around the world; still others concentrate on the information and communication technologies that link our lives with those of globally dispersed others  Globalization: process of worldwide integration of markets; geographic penetration of capitalist market relations into new sites of production in the relentless quest of profits, markets, and shares  Corporate/neoliber
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