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Chapter 5

BIOL 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Signal Recognition Particle, Cell Wall, Middle Lamella

Course Code
BIOL 102
Wayne Snedden

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Chapter 5: Systems Biology of Cell Organization
o Describe the relationship of the macromolecules DNA, RNA, and protein to the terms genome
and proteome.
DNA gets transcribed into RNA and then RNA gets translated into a protein. An organism’s genome is
its complete collection of DNA and from that DNA, specific cells make specialized proteins that
perform different functions which make up the proteome.
o Understand how the unifying biological principle that structure determines function is
particularly important in creation of molecular machines.
A protein is considered a machine because it undergoes conformational change to perform a
function. Has moving parts and does useful work. In proteins, shape dictates function because if a
protein doesn’t have a specific shape to bind to a receptor, then that process will not occur.

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Molecular machines are vital in promoting cell organization. The cytoskeleton is involved in the
organization of the cytosol. Although some molecular machines can assemble spontaneously from
their components, the complex interacting machinery of the cell is so complex that it needs existing
structure to guide assembly of the new components. Thus we can see why one biological principle is
that all cells originate from existing cells
o Describe how a eukaryotic cell can be viewed as four interacting systems: the nucleus, cytosol,
endomembrane system, and semiautonomous organelles.
Nucleus houses a cell’s DNA and its processes include protection, replication and packaging for cell
division. It is also the site of transcription.
Cytosol coordinates a response to the environment, metabolism and motor proteins
Endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope (surrounds nucleus), rough and smooth ER,
golgi body, lysosomes/vacuoles, peroxisome and plasma membrane.
Semiautonomous organelles mitochondria (animals) and chloroplast (plants) which provide energy
for the cell.
o Create a labelled diagram describing the flow of information from the nucleus, to the cytoplasm,
to the environment, to the cytoplasm, and back to the nucleus, and label key structures and

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