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BOAG CH15.docx

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BIOL 103
Virginia K Walker

BOAG CH. 15 (pg 343-354, 363-371): *no detailed study; key terms + concepts INHERITENCE + PHENOTYPE DETERMINATION Blending Inheritance: parents make equal genetic contributions to their offspring; their genetic material blends together as it is passed to the next generation Particulate Inheritance: determinants of hereditary traits are transmitted intact from one generation to the next INHERITANCE PATTERNS hybridization: 2 individuals w/ different characteristics mated to each other--> offspring are hybrids Mendel chose peas b/c: 1. there were readily available varieties that differed in phenotype; each trait had 2 variants (tall or short, red or white, etc) 2. they're self-fertilizing: female gamete fertilized by male gamete from the same plant -useful for producing plants that breed true for a given trait (trait is consistent across generations)--> true-breeding line 3. it was easy to make crosses -flowers were easy to manipulate and cross-fertilize for hybridization Ideas regarding properties + transmission of traits from parents to offspring: 1. Dominant + Recessive traits -data argued against blended inheritance -traits are dominant over others and mask the recessive ones during F1 2. Genes +Alleles -genetic determinants of traits are "unit factors" that are passed intact from generation to generation: genes -genes have different versions/forms: alleles 3. Segregation of alleles - 3:1 ratio b/w dom. and rec. trait -9:3:3:1 ratio b/w dom/dom, dom/rec, rec/dom, rec/rec traits -Law of Segregation of Alleles: the 2 copies of a gene segregate form each other during transmission from parent to offspring--> each sperm and egg only carries 1 allele TESTCROSS -to tell if a dominant phenotype is hereto (TT) or homo (Tt), breed it w/ a homo rec. (tt) --> TT should produce Tt offspring; all dominant phenotypes -->Tt should produce 2Tt, 2tt; half dominant half rec. phenotypes Dihybrid: offspring that are hybrids w/ respect to both traits (eg. TtAa) Law of Independent Assortment: the alleles
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