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Chapter 2

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BIOL 325
Richard Ascough

BGYB51 Chapter 2 Pages 3749 and 5365The Pattern of EvolutionThe first scientist to give a definition of species John Ray states that One species never springs from the seed of anotherThe Theory of Special Creation had been the leading explanation in Europe for the origin of species until a certain point where scholars began to challenge that notion ie when Darwin started to study biology seriously and research in biology and geology grew rapidly to disprove the theoryDarwin drew up evidence suggesting that the pattern of lifes history is different than is claimed by Special Creation Read Page 39 for elaboration 1 Species are not immutable but change through time 2 Species are derived not independently but from common ancestors 3 The Earth and life are considerably more than 6 000 years oldDarwin also introduced a process to explain this pattern called natural selection21 Evidence of Change through TimeEvidence from Living SpeciesThe living evidence for descent with modification comes in two forms o By monitoring natural populations we can directly observe small scale change ie microevolution o If we examine the bodies of living organisms we can find evidence of dramatic change ie macroevolutionDirect Observation of Change Through Time o Read examples of the change of the Soapberry bug over time on Page 40Vestigial Organs o A vestigial structure is a useless or rudimentary vision of a body part that has an important function in other closely allied species eg the remnant hind limbs on the rubber boa o Humans have muscles attached to the hair follicles that make hair stand up when cold intimidated or needed to seem bigger These muscles are effective for animals that are very hairy like chimpanzees Most of us are not that hairy except some of you hormone excessive freaks and thus the result of these muscles contracting is goose bumps This implies that we descended from ancestors who were hairier than us o Read page 42 for more examples o Vestigial traits also occur at a molecular levelHumans have one on chromosome 6 a DNA sequence that looks like a gene for the enzyme CMAHIt is actually disabled by a 92basepair deletion and humans cannot manufacture CMAHChimpanzees however are able to This explains that the human race must have descended from a common ancestor with the chimpanzees o Read page 43 for more examples
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