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Chapter 26.1-26.7

CHEM 112 Chapter Notes - Chapter 26.1-26.7: Unsaturated Hydrocarbon, Asymmetric Carbon, Stereoisomerism


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 112
Professor
Gang Wu
Chapter
26.1-26.7

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Chemistry Week 7
26-1
The simplest organic compounds are those with only carbon and hydrogen -> called hydrocarbons
The dashed and solid line notation
o Ordinary lines are used to represent bonds that lie in the plane of the paper
o Solid wedges are used to represent bonds that point toward the viewer, in front of the plane of the paper
o Dashed wedges are used to represent bonds that point away from the viewer, behind the plane of the paper
Constitutional isomerism
o Have different bond connectivities and thus different skeletal structures
o Example -> butane and methypentane
Nomenclature
o IUPAC
o Saturated hydrocarbons only have single bonds
o Unsaturated hydrocarbons can have double or triple hydrocarbon bonds
o Alkyl group a side chain of another hydrocarbon
Methyl, ethyl, propyl
o Primary carbon is one carbon attached to one other carbon
o Secondary carbon is one carbon attached to two other carbons
o Tertiary carbon is one carbon attached to three other carbons
o Quaternary carbon is one carbon attached to four other carbons
Rules for naming branched hydrocarbons
1. Select the longest continuous carbon chain and use the hydrocarbon name as the base name
2. Consider every branch as an alkyl group
3. Number the carbon atoms for the continuous base chain so that all the substituents appear at the lowest numbers possible
4. Name each substituent according to its chemical identity and the number of the carbon atom to which it is attached
5. Separate numbers from one another with commas and separate numbers from letters with dashes
6. List the substituents alphabetically by name, ignoring di, tri, sec, tert prefixes
Functional groups
o Contains elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen that occur in one or several groupings of atoms
o Hydroxide, carboxyl, carbonyl, halogen, and more
o See table
26-2
Alkanes
Only have covalent single bonds
Conformations of alkanes
o Totally eclipsed
o Gauche
o Eclipsed
o Anti
Methyl groups are directly opposite of
eachother
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