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Chapter 1

CHEM 112 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Louis Pasteur, Antoine Lavoisier, Metric System


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 112
Professor
Gang Wu
Chapter
1

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Chem Review- Chapter 1
Lavoisier
- published first book of modern chemistry
- Metric system
Scientific Method- Louis Pasteur
Observation- natural or experimental
Hypothesis- Tentative explanation
- Design experiment to test hypothesis
- Revise hypothesis- if experiments show it is incorrect
Theory- amplifies hypothesis and gives predictions
Experiments- to test predictions of theory
- Modify theory if experiments show it is incorrect
Theory established- unless later observations show inadequacies in model
Basic Definitions
Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass, anything made up of atoms.
Any matter that can be identified as a particular “type” is called a “substance”
Physical Properties: characteristics observed without changing basic identity of substance.
The key is that molecular structure of substance is not altered e.g. colour, melting point, density
Chemical Properties: any characteristic of a substance that involves ability (or inability) of
substance to react to form other substances. The molecular structure of substance being
studied (reactant) is altered if reaction occurs. e.g. flammability of carbon in oxygen gas e.g.
non-reactivity of Au in hydrochloric acid solution
Intensive Properties: characteristic not depending on amount of substance present. They
depend on the internal makeup of the substance. e.g. density, temperature, boiling point of a
pure substance
Extensive Properties: characteristics depending on amount of substance present. e.g. mass,
volume, heat content
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