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Chapter 2

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CHEM 112
Nicholas Mosey

Chapter 2 2.1 - Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory Law of conservation of mass - The total mass of substances present after a chemical reaction is the asame as the total mass of substances before the reaction. Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. Law of constant composition - All samples of a compound have the same composition - the same proportions by mass of the consituent elements. Dalton's atomic theory - the theory involves three assumptions: - Each cemical element is composed of minute, indivisible particles called atoms. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed during a chemical change. - All atoms of an element are alike in mass (weight) and other properties, but the atoms of one element are different from those of all other elements. - In each of their compounds, different elements combine in a simple numerical ration, for example, one atom of A to one of B (AB), or one atom of A to two of B (AB2). Law of multiple proportions - If two elements form more than a single compound, the masses of one element combined with a fixed mass of the second are in the ratio of small whole numbers. 2.2 - Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics All matter is made up of positively or negatively charged particles. Cathode rays - A type of radiation emitted by the negative terminal, or cathode. Eventually became known as electrons. Radioactivity - Continuous radiation of a material. Alpha particles - Carry two fundamental units of positive charge and have essentially the same mass as helium atoms. They are identical to He2+ ions. Beta particles - Negatively charged particles produced by changes occurring within the nuclei of radioactive atoms and have the same properties as electrons. Gamma rays - (y), a form of radiation unaffected by electric or magnetic fields. It is not made up of particles; it is electromagnetic radiation of extremely high penetrating power. 2.3 - The Nuclear Atom Rutherford's explanation of alph
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