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Chapter 1

Chapter One- The idea of Rome.docx
Chapter One- The idea of Rome.docx

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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Chapter One- The idea of Rome January-20-13 10:23 PM  At the height of Rome's power, scholars sought to explain Rome's astonishing success  Vitruvius, writer of architect, saw it as the inevitable outcome or Rome's geographical position o As history showed the empire, Rome was very inconveniently placed as a venter for a large empire  By 4th C. AD Rome had become a backwater rarely visited by emperors who spent there time in palaces and cite such as Milan, Aquila, Constantinople and Nicaea, strung out along the great east- west road  Great east-west road formed the vital communication corridor across Europe  All roads did not lead to Rome  Its geographical location explains its prominence and exceptional growth  Point where Tiber river opens up to the costal plain, the palatine hill and the Capitoline hill provide easily defensible area  From end of bronze age beginning of Iron age, 1000 BCE  By end of 7th C. BCE small villages of huts had formed together to form the 1st true urban community  Wet valley below capitol drained and became the forum- 1st public building  Main street out of forum is where main citizens resided (house of considerable size)  By Tiber temples rose above merchants quarters  Capitol became an acropolis for the city and the sit of an enormous temple to the cult of Jupiter  6th C. BCE Rome Largest, most developed urban site in region  Knowledge of Early Rome is largely derived for archaeology  Romans did not start recording history until 3rd C. BCE  Romans foundation myth more complex o Told cities beginning o Wildness o Exile o Rootlessness o Brutality o Killing  Romulus/Remus sons of Mars (god if fury, war, pointless killing) o Turned out of household o Raised by she-wolf (wolves were a terrible and common threat) o Later reared by a shepherd (an outsider)  City ruled by Etruscan kings 2 1/2C.  Tradition ascribed the kings to many of the fundamental institutions and social structures that were characteristic to Rome  World where loyalty to family/clan greater then any identification with a civic community  One of the most abiding features of roman history is the continued importance of the aristocrat  The early history of Rome is littered with stories if heroes  The kings can be viewed as clan chiefs who gained a reputation in their community for leadership  They were invested in imperium o The acknowledged right to give order to lose of lower status and expect them to be obeyed  Away imperium was expressed was through war  Conquest was an integral part of the Romans view of them selves  Imperium was the word romans used for their domination of the world  For the romans their empire started with Romulus  Hatred of the idea of one man rule lead to the development of the republic  The key features of the consulship: o The appointment by election by an assembly of roman people o Tenure of the post limited to one year. In normal circumstances a consul could not immediate be re-elected to office o Collegiality: there were to be two magistrates with equal imperium near again in normal circumstances would a single individual be invested with supreme imperium o Accountability: at some point, perhaps quite early on the principle was established that a magistrate could be called to account for his actions after the end of his period of office  The republican system was at all times in a state of change  Republic had inherit contradictions from the start  As Rome's horizons and obligations broadened so did there need for new offices  In times of emergency there might be need for one person to be in control, dictatorship created  Dictatorship created with supreme power for period of time  Mid 5th C. normal political system suspended to enable the creation of the first law codes Quaestors, exercised control over the finances   Aediles looked after markets  Pratorships an important judicial post  Adult male citizens were called together in assembly to elect magistrates and to vote on proposals put to them  Those who were not members of the patrician class were plebeians (plebs)  Late republic plebs held low status  172 BCE distinction between Partition and Plebeian became much less important  Although Cicero claims the seat to the magistrate is open to every man it was only open to the richest which made up 2% of population  Rome as an agrarian peasant society  ad years entered debt bondage, peasants sought to work off their debts for his creditor  a whole sequence of laws if the 4th C. sought to deal with the debt problem o Banned loans on the security of te person of the borrower and brought the systmor nexum to an end  State-owned land (ager Publicus)  The need for land was a powerful impose to the early stages of roman imperialism  The theory of the ultimate sovereignty of the people assembled is central to understanding Rome at any period  The plebeians created their own magistrates. These tribunes were created to counter the imperium of the consuls  Help (auxilium)  The tribunes power was reinforced by sacro sanctitars the result of an oath sworn by the plenians that any one forcebly prevented a tribune from exercising his rights would be declared sacre (accursed) and could be killed with out incurring blood guilt  the 12 tables Roman law code o Represents an important development in Rome o Interpretation of law taken out of hands of single group  Lex Hartensia (law of Hortensius) made the decision of the plebs binding on the whole population and gave them validation of laws  The magistrates with imperium, the senate, the tribunes and the of people remained in a state of tension each jockying for the position of being the ultimate arbiters of roman public life  Major change was achieved with out revolution or serious blood shed  The romans spoke Latin the language of their neighbors to the south  Etruscans influenced Rome In o Religious practices o Customs o Symbols of power o Architecture  Etruscan city of Veii was annexed by Rome  Latin's and Romans participated in ancient religious cults at common shrines  Rome's domination of the peninsula of Italy was ensured as the result f the fierce and difficult war fought against the samnites in the second half of the 4th C. BCE  The territory of defeated states was annexed by Rome to meet the demand of their own hungry citizens  Ager Romanus (roman land)  Rome simply absorbed whole communities into itself by granting roman citizenship o Many cases restricted citizenship  Ciutias Sine r(citizenship with out the right to vote)  The granting of citizenship was a system of control o Citizenship brought obligation of service in the roman army  In 280 BCE Tarentum, one of the leading Greek settlements, faced war with Rome, called in King Pyrruas o Rome's victory brought her to the notice of the other Mediterranean powers as a force to be reckoned with  Gaius Duilius, 1st roman to carry out successful naval action o 1st to equip and train crews and fleets of fighting ships o Used ships to defeat Punic's (Carthaginians)  Provincia (the sphere which a magistrate was expected to exercise his imperium, frequently geographical but also could be a specific task)  Hannibal transferred an army from Spain through S. France and over the Alps into Italy o Inflected a series of serious defeats to the romans o Rome would not give up  Scipio ended defeating Hannibal at Zama  Year after year Rome was able to mobilize the resources and manpower of Italy on a enormous scale  Second Punic war proved that she was no longer in any sense a conventional city-state  Macedonia saw Rome as week and made an alliance with Carthage  When Rome captured a Carthaginian envoy and discovered alliance declared war o Not long before peace was made  2nd Macedonian war 200 BCE o Rome won, gained right to dispense of Phillips Kingdom o Isthmian Games, proclaimed Greek people subject to Philip now free  Freedom meant the right to live by communities own traditional laws  Not have troops garrisoned  Not have to contribute taxes to another power  The ordinary roman solider was often rewarded with a share to the booty which he would scarcely have earned in a decade of work  Generals enriched themselves; but also used the wealth to transform Rome  Buildings provided the stage for festivals and games which kept alive the memory of Rome's victories o Bound all citizens into the system of imperialism  Rome's victories made her a center of the Mediterranean culture which Greek was the principle medium  The romans saw themselves as the descendants of the Trojans  Roman generals regularly resorted to acts of looting, reprisal, massacres, mass deportations, and enslavement  income from taxation on the empire enabled abolishing taxation in Italy  Cicero claimed "words cannot express how bitterly we are hated among foreign nations owing to the wanton and outrageous conduct of men whom we have sent to govern them"  From the late 2nd C. BCE roman history was see as a series of stages in as ever deepening crisis, leading to collapse and civil war.  The monarchy which the 1at emperor Augustus created to replace the republic could how be represented as a revival of all that was good in Rome's past that had been forgotten in the last 100 years  Auaritia (greed)  The moment when the vague discontents of the 2nd C. BCE crystalized into a crisis was the year of the turbinate of Tiberius Sempersnius Gracchus o Wanted to take land in Italy, Rome had acquired during its period of expansion o Land had to be parcelled out to peasants-farmers o Bill vetoed by another tribune o Tiberius o Decided that Octavius should be removed from the tribune on the grounds that he was not fulfilling his duty of acting in the interest of the people o Octavian forced out bill passed  Attalus III, king of Pergamum had died his kingdom bequeathed to the roman people o Since Attalus had given the land to the roman people it was there right to dispose of it as they wished  Tiberius declared his intention to run for tribunate o Mob of senators led by Pontifex Maximus, Rome's highest priest, clubbed Tiberius to death and his supporters  What was new to Rome (situation) was the attitude of the core aristocracy (senate)  The aristocracy turned on itself and reused to acknowledge the growing social/economic problems of population o Other sectors of society became alienated  Gaius Grachus became Tribune and was re-elected o Various attacks on the senatorial abuse of power o a bill to change juries of the extortion courts and give provinces a better chance at justice o A revival of Tiberius's land program with new colonies in S. Italy o Use state funds to organize the provision of corn for the city of Rome  To see the bill as simply a politial manuver furthering gauis's personal
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