Chapter Three Power and Imperator.docx

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Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Chapter Three: Power and Imperator February-03-13 4:11 PM  The roans not only secured a world empire but controlled it from the early 2nd C. BCE to the 5th C. AD more then 600 years  The basis to Rome's rise to power is by in the peculiar constitutional arrangements  Ruled by an individual (monarchy), by small group (oligarchy) and by the mass of the people (democracy)  The expulsion of the kings in 510/509 BCE ad their replacement by two consuls who had held the same power (imperium)  The consuls (and al major office holders) were magistrates ie. Men which had been elected and who had held office for only 12 months  The imperium was seen as the power by which the res publica got things done o Res publica means the activity of the roman people  The word imperium seems to originate not in an abstract notion of power but in the ability issue orders  The major magistrates who held the imperium should also be in a position to consult the gods (auspicium) about what should be done  Roman triumph, this was a prize rewarded to a successful roman general and by the 2nd C. BCE had become the highest award  Since the main task of most holders of imperium was to command the armies of the roman people, it is easy to see why it acquired such importance and prestige for the ruling class  When a holder of imperium left the city to take up the command of an army he had to o Perform certain religious rites  Confirmations that he would be allowed to consult the gods while away from Rome  The making of promise to Jupiter that if there was a successful outcome he would return to the temple of Jupiter in Rome to give thanks  Reason for this was that carrying arms and the presence of soldiers were normally not allowed with in the Pomerium for fear of violation the sacred area of the city itself  The power that the general used to command outside the city walls was called imperium militia and was distinguished from that used by magistrates  The importance to Augustus of the tradition of imperium and the triumph can bee seen at its clearest, however in the way in which he used it in the great architectural remodeling of the center of Rome. This led to his making the claim that he had found Rome built in brick and left it built in marble  The two consuls were at first drawn from the partisans, men who had been nobles during the regal period  Change so at least on consul a year shou
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