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Chapter Seven Technology, Trade and Exchange.docx

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Classical Studies
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CLST 129

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Chapter Seven: Technology, Trade and Exchange April-22-13 12:15 PM  Unaltered or raw materials used in creating objects, such as flint  Synthetic or altered materials, the product of human activities, such as pottery and metal  Artifacts made from unaltered materials o Stone: the archaeological record is dominated by stone artifacts. A combination of archaeological investigation, modern experimentation and ethnographic observation can tell us a great deal about how stone artifacts were made and used o Wood: wood does not survive well, apart from in very dry or waterlogged conditions, but was almost certainly as important a resource as stone o Plant and animal fibers: containers, fabrics, and cords made from plant and animal fibers would also have been common objects in the past but again, they rarely survive in the archaeological record o Other materials: bone, antler, shell and leather are also often found by archaeologists, but along with most other artifacts made from unaltered materials, we must establish whether an object is actually humanly made or whether it has been made by natural process  Artifacts made from synthetic materials o Many of the developments in pottery and metalworking technology can be linked to developments in pyrotechnology - the ability to control fire and attain and maintain ever higher temperatures
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