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COMM 181 Notes (Textbook)

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Department
Commerce
Course
COMM 181
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude
Semester
Fall

Description
The Legal Framework of HRM: (Chpt. 2) Two distinct sets of legislation (Federal – Employment Insurance, Canada Pension Plan & Provincial) Other kinds of laws: common laws, contract law, statutory law Each province has its own legislation that covers employment standards, human rights, labour relations, and worker health and safety Federal Employment Laws (2 basic) o Canada Labour Code  Covers basic employment conditions, labour relations, health and safety in the federal sector o Canadian Human Rights Act  Applies to all federal government departments and agencies  Administered by the Canadian Human Rights Commission  Privacy legislation: two primary laws  One that extends the federal legislation to provinces and businesses within the provinces  Called Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA)  One that is provincial (Personal Information Privacy Act (PIPA)  Organizations can no longer collect personal information without disclosing the full use to their employees Provincial Employment Legislation: Each province and territory has relatively similar legislation that provides certain rights and guarantees regarding employment Human Rights Legislation: Basic foundation: every person has an equal opportunity and should not be discriminated against on the grounds of race, ethnic, or national origin, colour, religion, age, sex, disability, or family or marital status Human rights legislation is enforced through human rights commissions (or tribunals) Discrimination: Essence of human rights legislation is to prohibit discrimination on the base of race, ethnic, or national origin, colour, religion, age, sex, disability, or family or marital status Many employment barriers are hidden, unintentionally, in the rules and procedures that organizations use in their various HRM practices o Barriers referred to as systemic discrimination  Have prevented the progress of these designated groups, inequity can result Employers may be permitted to discriminate if employment qualifications are based on a Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) o Eg. Airlines retire pilots at age 60 o A BFOQ is justified if the employer can establish its necessity for business operations Most of the decisions made by the Supreme Court of Canada, human rights tribunals and arbitrations look at whether the discrimination was intentional or unintentional Reasonable accommodation: o Adjusting employment policies and practices so that no individual is denied benefits, is disadvantaged with respect to employment opportunities, etc.  Eg. Redesigning job duties, adjusting work schedules, providing technical, financial, and human support services Reverse Discrimination: Giving preference to members of a certain group such that others feel that they are being discriminated against o Eg. making an effort to hire more women and in the process hiring less men Harassment: Any unwanted physical or verbal conduct that offends or humiliates a person Can be one incident or several incidents Threats, intimidation, unwelcome remarks/jokes, assault, inappropriate physical contact Harassment will be considered to have taken place if a reasonable person ought to have known that the behavior was unwelcome Concepts of harassment in the workplace are being broadened to include psychological harassment such as bullying Enforcement of Human Rights Legislation: Federal government and each province have a commission or similar agency to deal with complains concerning discriminatory practices Process: o 1. Inquiry – individual contacts CHRC (Canadian human rights commission) o 2. Early Resolution and Preventive Mediation – CHRC Rep encourages the parties to seek resolution in mediation o 3. Filing a complaint – if the individual wishes to pursue the matter after step 2 o 4. Mediation – CHRC specialists assist the parties in mediation o 5. Preliminary assessment – if parties don’t want mediation, complaint is referred to the investigation division o 6. Investigation – information is gathered o 7. Tribunal – final and binding decision Employment Standards Legislation: Employment standard laws: specify minimum obligations of employers Applies to all employers, unionized or not Labour Relations Legislation: Governs both the process by which a trade union acquires bargaining rights and the procedures by which trade unions and employers engage in collective bargaining Administered through an agency called the labour relations board: o Responsible for administering and enforcing the legislation Health and Safety Legislation and Workers’ Compensation: Violations of health and safety statues are administered through a government agency called the Workers’ Compensation Board Employment Equity: The establishment of policies and practices designed to ensure equitable representation in the workforce and to redress past discriminations as they relate to employment and employment practices The Law of Employment Equity: Employment equity act requires that the federal government, federal agencies, and crown corporations must implement employment equity and report on their results Legislation identified four groups in Canada that had not received equitable treatment: o Women, first nations people, visible minorities, people with disabilities Benefits of Employment Equity: Makes good business sense since it contributes to the bottom line by broadening the base of qualified individuals for employment, training, and promotions, and by helping employers to avoid costly human rights complains Pay Equity: Federal pay equity law makes it illegal for federally regulated employers to discriminate against individuals on the basis of job content Goal: narrow the pay gap between men and women Pay equity: o Equal pay for work of equal value and is based on two principles:  1. Equal pay for equal work  2. Equal pay for work that may be comparable in value to the organization o comparisons are made on job content, not the performance of the employee Diversity: Broad, inclusive concept encompassing factors such as religion, personality, lifestyle, education By managing diversity organizations can improve overall business performance through better decisions Creating an Environment for Success: Diversity initiatives should be taken slowly so that everyone can understand this change is an evolutionary process and that expectations should be realistic Leadership is most important when incorporating diversity into the business strategy Training is essential to the success of diversity implementation Advantages of incorporating diversity: o Employee retention o Changes in staff attitude o Increased promotions for minorities o Reduction in number of harassment suits o Reduced turnover of minority employees o Improved recruitment statistics for minorities o Improvements in productivity Final element in achieving success in the implementation of diversity is to monitor progress and provide evidence of change Defining and Designing Work (Chpt. 3) The Line manager’s role in defining work: Primary individual who determines what tasks and activities need to be performed, in what order to reach the company’s goals/objectives Play an integral role in developing and/or writing a job description A job: A group of related activities and duties Clear and distinct from those of other jobs to minimize misunderstanding and conflict among employees A position: Specific duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee Work: What needs to be done and when When thinking in terms of job or work, a manager needs to describe what tasks need to be done, in what order, the skills a person needs to successfully perform the work requirements, and the role a person plays in the company. Job Analysis: Process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what duties, tasks, or activities of those jobs are and the necessary skills, knowledge, training and abilities to perform the work successfully Purpose: improve organizational performance and productivity Outcome: a written job description Data can be collected through: o Interviews, questionnaires, observations, or a combination Job Descriptions: Includes the types of duties or responsibilities and the skills, knowledge, abilities, or competencies needed to successfully perform the work Typical headings: o Job title o Summary of job o List of duties and responsibilities o Job specification o Date Job specifications: The specific skills, knowledge, and abilities that are required to successfully perform the job Skills relevant to a job can include education and experience, specialized training and specific abilities Problems with job descriptions: Provides little guidance if poorly written or vague Sometimes not updated May violate the law if contains specifications not related to job success Limit the scope of activities Do not contain standards of performance Can be the basis for conflict Writing clear and specific job descriptions: Essential to use statements that are concise, direct, and simply worded Human rights legislation requires that the specific performance requirements of a job be based on valid job-related criteria Goal is to match and accommodate human capabilities to job requirements Standards of performance: Set out the expected results of the job – what you are expected to accomplish, and how much and how fast Job analysis in a changing environment: 2 approaches to job analysis: o adopt a future oriented approach where managers have a clear view of how jobs should be restructured to meet future organizational requirements o adopt a competency based approach in which emphasis is placed on characteristics or behaviors of successful performers rather than on standard job duties and tasks Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection HR Planning: Manager will have to anticipate the needs of the company Ensure that the people with the right skills for the present and future organizational growth: Human resource planning o Process to ensure that the people required to run the company are being used as effectively as possible, where and when they are needed, to accomplish the organization’s goals HR and strategic planning must be aligned to the overall business strategy Why is it HR planning important: o The workforce is aging o There are fewer jobs in the manufacturing sector o More of the workforce is born in another country o Labour shortages are predicted o More workers are part-time or self-employed It is required that managers being more involved in planning staffing needs since such changes affect employee recruitment, selection, training, compensation and motivation HR Planning approaches: Need to forecast the demand for employees: o Quantitative approach: trend analysis  Based on a type of organizational index – sales, units of production o Qualitative approach: management forecast  Based on opinions and judgments of people who are knowledgeable about the organization’s future needs Two techniques to assess the internal supply of employees: o Staffing tables:  Geographic representations of all organizational jobs along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs o Markov analysis:  Shows the percentage of employees who remain in each job from year to year, those who are promoted, demoted, transferred, or who leave o Skills inventory Results of HR planning: Achieve a useable balance between the demand for and supply of employees HR planning steps: Forecast demand  determine supply  Identify gap between the two  develop action plans to eliminate the gap Dealing with an oversupply: Attrition – natural departure of employees through quitting, retiring, or dying Ways to deal with it: o Suggesting a leave of absence o Job sharing o Reduction of work hours/pay o Redeploy people to units that have a need Dealing with labour shortage: Work extra hours Hire part time staff Increase the use of overtime Enhance retention strategies Lease employees Recruitment: The process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for existing or anticipated job openings Purpose: have a large pool of potentially qualified applicants Challenge: continue the recruitment process during difficult economic times Branding in employment framework: have a uniform image the comes to employee’s minds when the company name is mentioned Recruiting within an organization: Advantages: o Makes use of people who already know the organization o Gives other employees reason to anticipate that similar efforts by them will lead to promotion  improves morale o Protect employees from layoff o Broaden job experiences o Eliminate orientation and training costs o Transferee’s performance record is likely to be an accurate predictor of the candidate’s success Locating qualified internal job candidates: o Human resource information systems:  Databases that contain the complete records and qualifications of each employee within an organization  This data can be used to predict the career paths of employees and where promotion opportunities may arise o Succession Planning:  Identifying and developing and tracking key employees for future promotions o Internal job postings:  Vacancy notices, internet, email, newsletters Disadvantages: o Jobs required specialized training cannot be filled o No source of new ideas and knowledge from previous employers Recruiting outside the organization: Coordinated by an HR department Advantages: o Brings in unique skills Disadvantages: o Lack of info about person’s job performance o Not know the industry or organization o Needs training o Costs associated Labour market: o Area from which applicants are recruited o Vary with the type of position to be filled o Tight market: may force the employer to advertise heavily Outside sources of recruitment: o Advertisements: websites, newspapers, media o Internet: websites, faster, cheaper, potentially more effective o Employment agencies: executive search firms, match applicants with specific needs of the company o Educational Institutions: source of young applicants with formal training but little full-time work experience o Open houses and job fairs: particularly if the organization is expanding or looking for particular types of skills o Employee referrals: effectiveness can be increased by promising commission for successful recruitments o Unsolicited applications and resumes: should be treated with respect and courteously o Professional organizations: placement services within professional organizations o Unions: principal source of applicants for blue collar and some professional jobs o Recruitment for diversity: outreach programs where they speak at ethnic community centres Selection: Matching people and jobs: o Selection is the process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings o Objective: have information that will predict job performance o Various selection methods The selection process: o Usually a continuous process as turnover inevitably occurs o Applicaton  Screening  Employment tests  Team interview  Reference check  Hiring decision o Different means to obtain information:  Application forms, resumes, interviews, tests, references Obtaining reliable and valid information o Reliability: degree to which information yields comparable data over a period of time o Validity: what a procedure measures and how well it measures it o Both bust me reliable and valid in order to provide useful information about predicting the applicants performance in an organization Sources of information: o Application forms/resumes:  Provide information for experience, education, etc  Provide a basis for questions for the interviewer  Offer sources for reference checks  Display applicant’s creativity and let’s them present themselves  Acceptable questions:  Application date, educational background, experience, arrests and criminal convictions, country of citizenship, references, disabilities o Interviews:  Mainstay of selection because:  Practical for a small number of applicants  Public relations  Interviewers maintain faith in their judgments  Methods:  One on one  Panel/Team interviews  Telephone interview  Internet based interview  Types of questions:  Structured: based on job requirements and an established set of answers against which applicant responses can be rated, more consistent  Behavioural description interview (BDI) o Focuses on real life incidents, asks job applicants what they actually did o Situation  action  result o Questions based on job requirements, answers are easily rated against criteria, minimizes bias  Situational questions o Given a hypothetical incident and asked to respond to it  Unstructured: broad and open-ended  “tell me about your experiences with your last job”  Which types of questions to use:  Better to use both  Guidelines for Interviews:  Training should be done periodically  Ground rules for interviews:  Interview plan – determine specific questions  Maintain rapport  Be an active listener  Pay attention to non verbal cues  Provide free and honest information  Separate facts from inferences  Recognize biases and stereotypes  Control the interview  Standardize questions asked  Unacceptable question examples:  Where were you born, how old are you, childcare arrangements, spouse, use of drugs or alcohol, how tall are you/how much do you weigh, addresses outside Canada, religious beliefs, bondable, have you been arrested, what religious associations do you belong to o Employment tests: standardized way to assess someone’s competencies and other characteristics, measure either aptitude or achievement  Cognitive ability tests: mental capabilities, general intelligence, verbal fluency, numerical ability, reasoning ability  Personality and interest inventories: extroversion, agreeableness, openness to experience  Emotional intelligence: composite of emotional reasoning abilities – perceiving, understanding, regulating emotions  Physical ability tests  Job sample tests: actually part of the work required  Drug and alcohol tests: illegal to be random in CAN o Reference Checks:  Use both the mail and telephone  Are not proved successful for predicting employee performance  Notoriously inflated  An employer has no legal obligation to proved a former employee with a letter of reference  Inadequate referencing leads to high turnover or difficulties with the employee  Use to get relevant information Reaching a Selection Decision: Critical step: decision to accept or reject applicants Requires systematic consideration of all relevant information about applicants Common to use summary forms, checklists to ensure all pertinent information has been included o Summarize information:  What an employee CAN do  Knowledge, skills, aptitude  What an employee WILL do  Motivation, interests, personality Decision strategy: o Some questions to consider:  Should be hired according to highest potential or existing needs of organization  What wage level  Should selection be concerned with an ideal match of employee to job, or potential for advancement  To what extent are those who are not qualified but qualifiable be considered  Should overqualified be considered  What effect will a decision have on meeting employment equity plans and diversity considerations The Final decision: Is made by the line manager: who gets hired Orientation, Training and Development (Chpt. 5) Orientation, training and development play a central role in enabling, nurturing and strengthening the human capital in an organization Primary goal of orientation, training and development: Contribute to the organization’s overall goals A systems approach to training should be used: o 4 phases:  Needs assessment  Program design  Training Delivery  Evaluation of training Training: more focused on acquiring skills, behaviours, abilities to perform current work Development: oriented towards acquiring skills and such to perform FUTURE work Learning: change in behavior and thinking, ultimately the goal of training and development Phase 1: Needs assessment: Kinds of training needed, where they are needed, who needs them, which methods will best deliver increased abilities to employees May occur at the organizational level, the task level, or the person level Can be done by asking 4 questions: o How important is this issue to the success of the organization o What knowledge, skills or abilities do the employees need o What KSA’s do the employees currently have o What is the gap between the need and the have Other training issues (things that require training): o Mergers and acquisitions, technological change, globalization, re-engineering, total quality management, organizational restructuring, downsizing, empowerment, teamwork, trends in the workforce Important for the manager to be knowledgeable about the organization’s needs, the requirements of the work, and the capabilities of the person in order to assess that training is the right solution Phase 2: Designing the Training Program: Should focus on 4 related issues: o 1. Instructional objectives  conduct organization, task, and person analyses and use the information to state desired outcomes of training through written instructional objectives  describe the skills and knowledge the company wants people to have and the behaviours employees should acquire or change  may seek external resources to design the training program and write the objectives o 2. Trainee Readiness and Motivation  readiness: maturity and experience factors in the trainee’s background  motivation: desire to learn as training progresses  6 essential strategies:  Positive reinforcement  Eliminate threats and punishment  Flexibility  Have participants set personal goals  Design interesting instruction  Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning o 3. Principles of Learning  training has to build a bridge between employees and the organization  important to incorporate the following principles of learning into training programs:  Goal setting  Individual Differences  Active Practice and Repetition  Whole-Versus-Part time learning  Massed vs. Distributed learning  Feedback and reinforcement  Meaningfulness of presentation  Modeling o 4. Characteristics of Trainers:  success of any training activity will depend on the skills and personal characteristics of those responsible for conducting the training  good trainers will be knowledgeable about the subject, well prepared, have good communication skills, and will be enthusiastic with a sense of humor Phase 4: Evaluating the training program: 4 basic methods to evaluate training o Reactions  Happy trainees will be more likely to want to focus on training principles and to utilize the information on the job  Should be noted that positive reactions are no guarantee that the training has been successful o Learning  Testing knowledge and skills before a training program gives a baseline standard on trainees that can be measured again after training to determine improvement o Behaviour  Transfer of training: effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job  Important for the supervisors to expect the behavior change and to reinforce the changes  To maximize the transfer, there are several approaches:  Feature identical elements of job in training  Focus on principles that can be adapted to fit situations in work environment  Establish a climate with the manager being supportive and ensuring that the employee uses new skills o Results  Organizations want to know if training has increased business results, whether it is profit, customer satisfaction or decreased costs  4 step process:  Plan – decide on areas to be benchmarked  Do – collect data  Check – analyze data to find gaps  Act – establish goals and redefine benchmarks  Use benchmarking to clearly define the measures of competency and performance and assess the current situation and identify areas for improvement Orientation: Objective: to get employees off to a good start Accomplished through a formal orientation program Familiarizes new employees with the organization, their job, and their work unit Orientation is a process – a socialization process Benefits: o Lower turnover o Increased productivity o Improved employee morale o Lower recruiting and training costs o Facilitation of learning o Reduction of new employee’s anxiety The more time and effort devoted – the more employees will identify with the organization and become valuable members Continuous process: o Plans, policies and procedures change with the changing conditions of an organization o Important that all employees be continually reoriented Cooperative endeavor: o Cooperation between staff and employees is essential o Common practice for supervisors or other personnel to volunteer as buddies for incoming employees Careful planning: o An orientation program can make an immediate and lasting impression on an employee that can mean the difference between the employee’s success and failure at work o Careful planning is essential o Early in orientation, steps should be taken to reduce anxiety o Orientation process should also be evaluated to ensure it is meeting organizational outcomes Career Development: Development programs should be viewed as a dynamic process that attempts to meet the needs of managers, their employees and the organization Career planning: systematic approach to assess your values, interest, abilities, goals and identify paths you need to take to realize your career goals Through career development programs  journey along career path Career development programs benefit managers by giving them increased skill in managing their own careers, greater retention of valued employees, increased understanding of the organization, and enhanced reputations as people developers Organizational needs should be linked with individual career needs Creating Favourable conditions: Management support: if CD is to succeed, it must receive the complete support of top management Goal setting: individuals must have awareness of the organizations philosophy and a clear understanding of the organization’s more immediate goals Changes in HRM practices: In order to ensure that its career development program will be effective an organization may have to alter current HRM practices: o Job transfers – across organizations o Promotions – two criteria: Merit, Seniority Mentoring: Managers who coach, advice and encourage less experienced employees are called mentors Tips to make mentoring successful: o Mentoring is a personal interaction o Being a mentor isn’t for everyone o Make use of work assignments and challenges o Mentoring is a two way street o Be clear on expectations Mentoring can also be done electronically Specialized career development for a diverse workforce: Some organizations offer extensive career development programs geared to special groups: women, minorities, youth, dual-career couples Keeping a career in perspective: Organizations want people who can maintain an appropriate balance between their work life and their personal life Some areas of life that must be considered: o Off-the job interests o Family life o Planning for retirement o Dual-career families Developing People in the Org (Chpt. 6) Performance management system: Set of integrated management practices Allows the organization to integrate management functions in order to maximize employee potential Helps increase employee satisfaction Utilize the knowledge and skills of employees Management practices essential for effective performance mgmt.: o Setting and communicating clear expectations o Clear and specific performance objectives o Providing support and coaching o Focusing on accomplishment of objectives o Recognizing good performance o Creating action plans to improve performance Purposes for performance reviews: Compensation o Salary increases, bonuses Administrative o Promotions, transfers, layoffs, succession planning, documenting HR actions Measurement of Performance o Determine goal accomplishment, influence employee behavior, improve organizational performance Developmental o Feedback on strengths and improvements, eliminate potential problems, identify training needs Reasons Performance management systems can fail: If there are no plans for helping employees develop after review If there is no ongoing goal review and feedback If there is little to no review training for managers If the metrics are unknown to employees If there is no address of poor performance If there aren’t enough formal reviews If there is lack of executive commitment to the process If not all evaluations are the same If there is lacking of manager capability If there is manager bias: 3 errors and 1 tendency o Recency error: making decisions based on recent events o Halo error: judging performance by putting emphasis on only one area that is important in supervisor’s mind o Central tendency: unwillingness to give extremely low or high assessments and making everyone “above average” o Contrast error: comparing one employee’s performance to another rather than to a set of standards Steps in an effect performance management system: HR department as primary responsibility for overseeing and coordinating the system 5 steps are key: o Clarifying the work to be done – identifying the expected outcomes and how the results will be measured o Setting goals and establishing a performance plan – goals must be linked to overall business objectives o Regular and frequent coaching – providing feedback to help employees achieve results o Conducting a formal review of performance – allows both to consider the employee’s accomplishments and areas for improvements o Recognizing and rewarding performance – nonfinancial rewards:  Promotions, working on special projects, praise, profiled in a business journal Complying with the law: Legality of any performance management system is measured against: o Reliability – consistence measuring o Fairness – avoids bias o Validity – job related and accurate Performance ratings should meet these guidelines: o Must be job related and performance standards related o Employees must have a written copy of their standards o There must be a measurable standard o Managers should be trained to:  Set goals and performance standards  Coach and conduct a formal review session  Write a review report o Established appeals procedure o Open discussion of reviews Who should provide performance information: Manager/supervisor review: o Traditional approach, generally more objective Self-review: o Beneficial to increase employee involvement Subordinate review: o Helpful because subordinates are always in contact with managers, judged on: leadership, communication, delegation, coordination, interest in subordinates o Should be anonymous Peer review: o Provides information that differs from information by a superior since peers see different dimensions of performance o Advantage – belief that these assessments furnish more accurate and valid information o Disadvantages – popularity contests, reluctance to give up control, retaliation for low ratings, stereotypes, more extreme views Team review: o Hard to separate out an individual’s contribution o Breaks down barriers between individuals Customer input: o External: customers that receive service from the company o Internal: anyone in the organization that depends on another employee’s work output 360 Degree Review: combination of various sources of performance appraisal information to create multi-person feedback systems input from all angles Pros: o More comprehensive o Various perspectives o A complete picture of employee performance o Less bias o More consistent information o Provides better information Cons: o Cumbersome to combine all responses o Requires commitment from organization o Can be seen as a popularity contest o Conflicting opinions o People feeling overwhelmed o System requires training o Risk of invalid evaluations In order to make the system effective: o Use expertise o Customize the system to your organization o Include many sources of input o Make use of feedback Training reviewers: Weakness: not many managers and supervisors are trained for setting performance goals and assessing performance  provide little meaningful feedback Training helps remove barriers of time constraints, lack of knowledge, and interpersonal conflicts Performance Review methods: Trait methods o Measures the extent to which an employee possesses certain characteristics: dependability, creativity, initiative, leadership o Supervisor numerically rates the person on a graphic rating scale Behavioural methods: o Describes which actions should or shouldn’t be exhibited on the job o Behavioural check list:  Supervisor checks statements on a list that are believed to be the characteristics of the employee’s performance or behavior o Behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS)  A series of vertical scares – one for each important dimension or component of performance, based on critical incidents o Behaviour Observation Scales (BOS)  Enables the reviewer to play the role of observer rather than judge – similar to BARS, based on critical incidents Results methods o Review employee accomplishments o Productivity measures:  Directly links what employees accomplish with results that benefit the organization  May inadvertently encourage employees to look good on a short-term basis o Management by Objectives:  Employees establish objectives and use these objectives as a basis for review  These objectives should be:  Made by both managers and employees  Quantifiable and measurable  Results in control of employee  Have supportive managers  Consistent for each level  Have specific review times o The Balanced Scorecard:  Measurement framework that helps managers translate strategic goals into operational objectives  4 categories in generic model:  Financial, customer, processes, learning Which performance review method to use: Simplest and least expensive techniques often yield the least accurate information Trait method: easiest and most inexpensive, high potential for errors and poor to determine compensation Behavioural method: more specific, fair for compensation decisions, acceptable and useful for feedback, time consuming and more costly, some potential for rating error Results method: less bias, acceptable, links individual and organization performance, good for compensation decisions, encourages goal setting, time consuming, encourages short term perspective, may use contaminated or deficient criteria Performance Review Interviews: Give the manager the opportunity to discuss a subordinate’s performance record and to explore areas of possible improvement and growth Identify the subordinate’s attitudes and feelings more thoroughly and improves communication Conducting the Formal Performance Interview: Some guidelines to increase employee’s acceptance of feedback, satisfaction with interview and intention to improve: o Ask for a self-assessment o Invite participation o Express appreciation o Minimize criticism o Change the behavior, not the person o Focus on solving problems o Be supportive o Establish goals o Follow up day to day o Meeting set up Important for the supervisor to remain calm and be clear on what the problem is and what specifically needs to be done differently Improving Performance: Must identify the source of ineffective performance 4 possible sources: o Organization policies and practices  Ineffective placement, insufficient training, lack of attention to concerns, unclear reporting relationships o Personal problems  Martial, financial, emotional, conflict problems, low work ethic, lack of effort, immaturity o Job concerns:  Unclear work requirements, boredom, management-employee conflict, unsafe conditions, lack of skills o External factors:  Industry decline, legal constraints, union-management conflict, ethical conflicts, extreme competition o Diagnosis of poor employee performance focuses on three interactive elements:  Skill  Effort  External conditions Once sources are known, a course of action can be planned o Providing training o Transfe
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