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Chapter wk2

GPHY 229 Chapter Notes - Chapter wk2: Wheat Production In The United States, Industrial Revolution, Corn Belt

Course Code
GPHY 229
George Lovell

of 3
Week 2
Lovell A First ook in geography: Carl Sauer and the reation of Man in Nature
- Man in Nature America before the days of the white men (1939 book) for elementary
school audience by Carl Sauer
- Originally proposed as a collaborative series (1934) 1939 Sauer was sole author of a single
edition; spent 5 years on it
- Sotoayor or Soto illustrated the ook. His art is the gateay to Sauers geography
- Sauer grew displeased with Miss Warthin and Miss Kellys otriutios to the ook; also
with the tardiness of Horn (education consultant). Horn replaced by Baisden
- Geography book by a famous geographer with the help of a map-maker, educator,
geographer and anthropologist
- Book was well received by teachers and school boards; no sequels written though
- ‘eprited i 9 after Sauers death, haig disappeared durig WWII
- Good book; challenged Eurocentrism, celebrates cultural diversity
o It calls for understanding the links between environments and society
Carl Sauers Agency of Man on Earth (1962)
- Study of akid; hat is huaitys effet o earth systes?
- Should social behaviour have concern for our posterity?
- Kinship first basis of social organisation
- Early man; wide food range/broad digestive opportunities; spread & multiply
- Maternal duties; try to have sedentary life
- Why do we (Europeans) deny blood link to Neanderthal man?
- Primordial man; adventurous travelled far and influenced his environment
- Climatic changes and their effects on man
o Periods of big climatic changes; favoured species who could adapt, multiply, move
o +/- 1m years of glacial time; 4 glaciations and 3 interglacial periods. Currently
- Fire
o Enabled living in colder climates
o Cooking allowed unpalatable foods to be cooked
o Social life took place around fires
o Burning land produced more fertile, protein-rich food for man
o Fire allows secondary fire association, ecologic succession to occur rapidly in that
o Grasslands are rooted in burning; ancient cultural features rather than just naturally
occurring (p545)
o Fire ast stopped y soieties util reetly. By preetig fire, tider
accumulates which increases fire risk in future
- Peasant and pastoral ways
o Domestication counters natural selection.
o Domestication took place by comfortable village societies not wrought by famine
o Tillage started by just digging/hoe use
o Eurasia; nomadic peoples, focused on pastoral farming.
o North-western and Central Europe; home of hay and pasture grasses. The Asian
grains like wheat and barley did less well but oats and rye succeeded; cultivated
instead of being regarded as weeds
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o Animal husbandry in north Europe; very little soil erosion in this region
- Impact of civilisation in antiquity and the Middle Ages
o Cities separated from agricultural production/countryside
o Missing information on non-European history of land use
o Introduction of plants from elsewhere impacts landscapes e.g. Mediterranean;
Greco-Roman civilisation brought plants with them elsewhere. Arabs added more
plant diversity to this region
- European overseas colonisation
o Europeans left Europe to trade or raid
Spanish Conquistadores came to make fortune, not to settle, but did end up
leaving a legacy
o Santo Domingo; trade (gold products), then killing off of locals, sourcing slaves to
maintain the trading post; food shortages, abandonment of local agricultural
o Aboriginal populations who met Europeans declined in number/extinguished
altogether. (16th & 17th centuries) New colonies grew sugarcane; boiled in mills by
burning wood wood depletion in e.g. Haiti, 16th c.
o The Spanish settlers first traded/looted metals then prospected for mines. Mines
surrounded by depleted vegetation& overpastured land.
- Last frontiers of settlement
o 18th c. to WWI; big expansio of hite es settleets.
o Cotton began being cultivated more widely in 1800 in North America; depleted soils
used fertilisers from Mexico.
o 1825, another frontier started with the Erie Canal opening; plantation culture.
Transport by waterways and then railroad both sides of Atlantic
o Prairies later made agricultural too, thanks to steel plows, railroad connections and
cheap northern lumber
o Wheat Belt arose following the Corn Belt on Trans-Missouri grassy plains in late 18th
c. monoculture, unbalanced.
o Industrial revolution enabled by plowing-up grasslands outside Europe.
o Turn of the 19th c.; conservation movement born in the US; concern about industrial
civilisation being able to keep up momentum, having enough resources
- The ever dynamic economy
o Production = extraction!
o Produtio ad osuptio eooy, Sauer rites i 9 that theres still a
concern for sustainability/having enough resources
o Farming industry and business; steps away from man living in balance with his
land (former agriculture)
o Curret agriultural surpluses dot sho that oer for shortages are o oer
o Switch to profit-based mechanic farming = move away from soil-preserving crops.
Commercial fertiliser replaced natural nitrogen sourcing (plants)
o Soil erosion is problematic, widespread. Row crops are bad for soil, good for profits.
Fertility thus also diminishing.
- Self-interest shapes how man is dominating the world, destroying native (successful,
sustainable) methods of growing crops
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com