Pols241 Week 1 textbook readings: Chapter 1- The new professionalism of internal warefare and
military role expansion.
Focus on how changing military ideology contributed to the events leading up to the military
coup of 1964 and the emergence of the military-bureaucratic and authoritarian
developmentalist components of the model.
Argues that what happened in Brazil was part of the wider military phenomenon know as “the
new professionalism of internal security and national development”
New professionalism vs. Old Professionalism
The political roles of the Brazilian and Peruvian military establishments= the two most
professional in Latin America.
Professionalism-As the professionalism of a military establishment increases the military’s
activities tend to become less political.
Brazil and Peru are best viewed as one of the logical consequences of the new professionalism.
The classic formulation of the argument about military professionalism and its relation to the
political activity of the military is Samuel Huntingtons
o 1) Modern Warfare demands a highly specialized military (not-well rounded)
o 2) As a result of the specialization, officership is an exclusive role incompatible with any
other significant social or political roles.
o 3) The functions of the officer became distinct from those of the Politician and the
o 4) On the scope of military concern: a clear distinction in role and function between
military and civilian leaders
o 5) On the impact of professionalism on military attitudes to politics: Civilian control is
thus achieved because they are indifferent to such values and ideologies.
o 6) The one essential ingredient for any system of civilian control is the minimization of
military power. This is achieved through objective civilian control by professionalizing
the military and by restricting it to one sphere.
The argument that assistance policies should be given in order to professionalize the military has
been rationalized based on the fact that by doing so the US could help convert traditional armies
into modern ones by depoliticizing them.
This concept is widely misunderstood because many ignore the fact that Huntington later stated
that if the focus shifts from interstate conflict to domestic conflict it will encourage a different
pattern of civil-military relations.
Instead of the gap between military and political sphere widening, the new professionalism led
to a belief that the two spheres were interrelated, with the military playing a key role in
New professionalism= some degree of military expansion
o However the weaker the civilian government’s own legitimacy and ability to supervise a
“peaceful” process of development is the greater the tendency will be for the new professionals to assume control of the government to impose their own view of
development on the state.
See chart in readings for Characteristics
Also in developed countries such as France in the 1950’s
By the late 1960s; The old professionalism is less important/common
New professionalism in the Brazilian Political Crisis
1964- development of new military institutions that became the centres of the new
o Ex. The Superior war college (ESG): Declared its mission to be preparing civilians
and the military to perform executive and advisory functions (Integrated public
and private spheres)
Late 19502-early 1960s: the ESG had developed its key ideological tenet
which led to the doctrine that modern warfare involved the unity, will
and productive capacity of the entire nation. (doctrine taught at the
At the ESG Colonel Golberry *chief ideologue at the school* argued th