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Chapter 5

Pols241 week 4 readings part 1 Chapter 5 in Textbook.docx

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Political Studies
POLS 241
Dru Lauzon

Pols241 week 4 readings part 1 Chapter 5 in Textbook (Paths towards Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative considerations  The first 3 paths are ones in which war and conquest play an important part in the redemocratization process. o 1) internal restoration after external reconquest o 2) internal reformulation o 3) externally monitored installation  For the last 3 decades and for the conceivable future the majority of cases of re-democratization have been and will be ones in which sociopolitical rather than external military forces play the key role. o We can divide these paths into two general categories  1) the termination of authoritarian regimes and the move toward re- democratization could be initiated by the wielders of authoritarian power themselves.  2) Path 4- redemocratization initiated from within authoritarian regimes.  4.a) civilianized political leadership  4.b) military as government  4.c) military as an institution  Path 1- Internal Restoration after external re-conquest o Means that redemocratization takes place when a functioning democracy that has been conquered in war restores democracy after the conqueror is defeated by external force. o Such restoration would entail few pressures or incentives for major economic change. o Examples. Netherlands, Belgium, Norway and Denmark o Norway and Denmark are perfect fits  In both countries crown and cabinet went into exile and there was no hint of the culpability or collaboration of the democratic leadership with the authoritarian conquerors, the Nazis.  Thus. The respective monarchs in exile became symbols of national unity and of resistance to the invader; the resistance movements did not challenge the legitimacy of the governments in exile and the conquerors did not succeed in imposing any enduring socioeconomic changes.  Path 2 –Internal reformulation o Redemocratization takes place after a conqueror has been defeated largely because of external force. However, the more internal circumstances cause the previous democratic regime to collapse, or the previous regime is deemed culpable for the conquest, or there is a perception of collaboration the more impossible simple restoration of the previous democratic system becomes and the more likely that redemocratization will entail deep, constitutional reformulation.  The more the above factors are positive, the more likely the outcome will be civil war among competing groups. o Cases closest to this path are France and Greece  Path 3- Externally monitored Installation o This category includes cases in which democratic powers defeat an authoritarian regime and play a major role in the formulation and installation of a democratic regime. o Major political weakness is its foreign imposition o It appears to have a legitimacy problem not present within the first path o Does share with the Marxist path the power to dismantle the military and political institutions and other features of the authoritarian state apparatus. o If the authoritarian regime has been severely discredited, nationalistic reaction against foreign imposition might be dampened. However if imposition occurs by capitalist powers, the range of socioeconomic and political changes supported by the monitoring powers will fall within broadly predictable limits. o Ex. West Germany  Path 4 – Redemocratization initiated from within the Authoritarian regime o Some major institutional power-holders within the ruling authoritarian coalition are perceive that because of changing conditions their long-term interests are best pursued in a context in which authoritarian institutions give way to democratic institutions.  3 subtypes  4.a) redemocratization initiated by the civilian or Civilianized Political Leadership o There is greater chance that this path will be initiated if:  1) the more there are new socio-economic and political demands from below of from former active supporters  2) the more there is doubt or conflict about regime legitimacy rules  3) the more there is the chance that the power-holders will retain and ratify much of their power via competitive elections. o Even if the initial transition is successful, much of the coercive apparatus of the authoritarian state will remain intact after the election. o The stability of the new democratic regimes is vulnerable to an internal coup by the bureaucratic apparatus of the previous authoritarian regime, or an actual coup by the security forces. o The clearest case is Spain  A major factor in facilitating the internal transformations of the authoritarian regime was the
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