Pols241 week 4 readings part 1 Chapter 5 in Textbook (Paths towards Redemocratization: Theoretical
and Comparative considerations
The first 3 paths are ones in which war and conquest play an important part in the
o 1) internal restoration after external reconquest
o 2) internal reformulation
o 3) externally monitored installation
For the last 3 decades and for the conceivable future the majority of cases of re-democratization
have been and will be ones in which sociopolitical rather than external military forces play the
o We can divide these paths into two general categories
1) the termination of authoritarian regimes and the move toward re-
democratization could be initiated by the wielders of authoritarian power
2) Path 4- redemocratization initiated from within authoritarian regimes.
4.a) civilianized political leadership
4.b) military as government
4.c) military as an institution
Path 1- Internal Restoration after external re-conquest
o Means that redemocratization takes place when a functioning democracy that has been
conquered in war restores democracy after the conqueror is defeated by external force.
o Such restoration would entail few pressures or incentives for major economic change.
o Examples. Netherlands, Belgium, Norway and Denmark
o Norway and Denmark are perfect fits
In both countries crown and cabinet went into exile and there was no hint of the
culpability or collaboration of the democratic leadership with the authoritarian
conquerors, the Nazis.
Thus. The respective monarchs in exile became symbols of national unity and of
resistance to the invader; the resistance movements did not challenge the
legitimacy of the governments in exile and the conquerors did not succeed in
imposing any enduring socioeconomic changes.
Path 2 –Internal reformulation
o Redemocratization takes place after a conqueror has been defeated largely because of
external force. However, the more internal circumstances cause the previous
democratic regime to collapse, or the previous regime is deemed culpable for the
conquest, or there is a perception of collaboration the more impossible simple
restoration of the previous democratic system becomes and the more likely that
redemocratization will entail deep, constitutional reformulation.
The more the above factors are positive, the more likely the outcome will be
civil war among competing groups.
o Cases closest to this path are France and Greece Path 3- Externally monitored Installation
o This category includes cases in which democratic powers defeat an authoritarian regime
and play a major role in the formulation and installation of a democratic regime.
o Major political weakness is its foreign imposition
o It appears to have a legitimacy problem not present within the first path
o Does share with the Marxist path the power to dismantle the military and political
institutions and other features of the authoritarian state apparatus.
o If the authoritarian regime has been severely discredited, nationalistic reaction against
foreign imposition might be dampened. However if imposition occurs by capitalist
powers, the range of socioeconomic and political changes supported by the monitoring
powers will fall within broadly predictable limits.
o Ex. West Germany
Path 4 – Redemocratization initiated from within the Authoritarian regime
o Some major institutional power-holders within the ruling authoritarian coalition are
perceive that because of changing conditions their long-term interests are best pursued
in a context in which authoritarian institutions give way to democratic institutions.
4.a) redemocratization initiated by the civilian or Civilianized Political
o There is greater chance that this path will be initiated if:
1) the more there are new socio-economic and political
demands from below of from former active supporters
2) the more there is doubt or conflict about regime
3) the more there is the chance that the power-holders
will retain and ratify much of their power via
o Even if the initial transition is successful, much of the coercive
apparatus of the authoritarian state will remain intact after the
o The stability of the new democratic regimes is vulnerable to an
internal coup by the bureaucratic apparatus of the previous
authoritarian regime, or an actual coup by the security forces.
o The clearest case is Spain
A major factor in facilitating the internal
transformations of the authoritarian regime was the