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PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Human Leukocyte Antigen, Fetus, Placenta


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Evolutionary Psychology 6/5/2012 7:02:00 AM
Evolutionary Psychology
Concerned with the affect of evolution on behaviour
o Certain genes can be expressed differently depending on
interactions with the environment
OGOD hypothesis
One gene, One disorder on genes for behaviour disorders
o Not very successful
o Major mental disorder do not involve one single gene
Behavioural Genetics
Genetic and environmental influences on individual members of the
same species
o Genetic Influence
Heritability (h2)
Describes the amount of variance in behaviour that can
be attributed to genetic differences
o Inheritance
A trait that is passed through genes
A trait that is not inherited will have zero
heritability
Population that as higher homogenous
environment will have higher heritability
Changes in evolution require changes in genetic variance
Heritability
Contrasts between
o Identical (Monozygotic)
o Fraternal (Dizygotic)
o Genetically related individuals reared together and apart
Correlations between identical, monozygotic twins
reflect heritability
Shared environments affect twins
Non shared environments have important effects on
intelligence and personality
Behaviour has 2 interrelated types of causes

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o Structure and chemistry of the organism
Largely genetically determined
o The environment
Adaptations make human nature
Natural Selection
Progressing through modification with survival of offspring
o Genes relative with reproductive success increase in
frequency over generations
Changes produced by evolution are inherited
o Produces adaptations
Characteristic that is not an adaptation:
o Either a product of other adaptations
o The result of non selective forces
o Or pathology (eg. Lesions caused by infections)
Evolution works on reproductive success, not happiness
o To think other wise is naturalistic fallacy
All characteristics that have been produced by evolution need an
environment to express them and are influenced by the
environment
o Genetic deterministic fallacy believes otherwise
Facultative
o Behaviours determined by proximal environment
Obligate
o Develop independently of environmental context
Epigenetic modifications
o Changes in cellular inheritance that are not due to DNA
Adaptation
Must meet 4 criteria
o Designed to accomplish biological purpose
o Operates similarly over cultures and time
o Plausible related to reproductive and survival success in
ancestral environments
o Should not mostly be a product of another characteristic
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