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PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Thematic Apperception Test, Rorschach Test, Self-Actualization


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Personality 6/5/2012 7:03:00 AM
Personality
A pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and
situations and differentiates one person from another
Consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings, behaviours that
characterize each person as a unique individual
o Minor changes in behaviour shouldn’t affect personality
Social Psychology
o Focuses on peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
change across different situations
4 different personality perspectives
o Trait
o Psychodynamic
o Humanistic
o Social cognition
Trait perspective
Traditional classic approach to psychological study of personality
o Factor analysis
Reveals factors or basic dimensions that underlie a
survey data set
Essentially, this technique examines all of the
correlations between all of the questionnaire items and
determines if any of them group together (are highly
correlated with one another)
Groups are called factors
Examine to see if a common theme exists
Sixteen factors
o Basic traits that could be used to describe all personality
types
The big Five (Five Factor Model)
o Five general independent personality dimensions that best
capture all personality types
Neuroticism
Pay attention to threats and unpleasant
experiences
Show distress

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More susceptible to anxiety and depression
Extraversion
Attend more parties, popular, leaders
Openness to experience
NEO Personality Inventory
Change careers, less racial prejudice
Agreeableness
More willing to lend money, few behavioural
problems
Conscientiousness
Sexually faithful, higher job performance, good
grades
o Also composed of six subordinate trait dimensions
Personality can be stable through adulthood and increase with age
Personality tests correlate well with behaviour
Psychodynamic Perspective
Sigmund Freud
o Focus on childhood experiences
o Hypnosis
o Focus on unconscious forces and desires
Human behaviour is largely driven by the unconscious
Unconscious motivations related to sex and aggression
influence personality
o Psychoanalysis
Exposing and interpreting unconscious motivation and
conflicts
o Personality Structure
Id
Completely unconscious
Basic sexual and aggressive drives
Pleasure principle, immediate gratification
Superego
Follows the rules and restrictions placed upon us
by society
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Partly conscious
Ego
Largely unconscious
Mediates between the id and the ego
Reality principle
Psychosexual development
o Personality develops through a series of childhood stages
where the pleasure seeking energies of the ID become
focused on distinct erogenous zones on the body
Each stage presents a challenge we must work through
o Fixation
Lingering focus on pleasure seeking energies at an
earlier psychosexual stage
Until resolved, individual is stuck at the stage
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Defense Mechanisms
o Personality is also influenced by defense mechanisms that
employ to keep unacceptable or anxiety producing motives
and thoughts from their conscious awareness
Repression
Banishes unpleasant thoughts from consciousness
Displacement
Shifting impulses towards a more acceptable or
less threatening object or person
Sublimation
Redirects sexual and aggressive energies towards
activities that are valued by society
Reaction Formation
Ego unconsciously switches unacceptable
impulses into their opposites
Projection
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