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PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Botulinum Toxin, Magnetoencephalography, Neurotransmitter Receptor


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Behaviours
Nerves carry both incoming and outgoing information
Sense organs detect changes in the environment and send signals
through the nerves to the central nervous system
Brain sends signals though the nerves to the muscles (causing
behaviours)
Glands produce adjustments in internal physiological processes
Neurons
Nerve cells, elements of the nervous system that bring sensory
information to the brain
Store memories
Reach decisions
Control activity of muscles
Process information and communicate information to other neurons
Glial cells
A cell of central nervous system that provides support for neurons and
supplies them with some essential chemicals
Some forms of Glial cells form long fibers that guide developing
neurons from their place of birth to their final resting place
Other types of glia manufacture chemicals that neurons need to
perform their tasks and absorb chemicals that might impair neurons
functioning
Dendrites tree like growths attached to the body of a nerve cell, receives
messages from other neurons
Dendritic spine a small bud on the surface of a neurons dendrite

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Soma (cell body) largest part of the neuron and contains the mechanisms that
control the metabolism and maintenance of the cell
Axon a long thin part of the neuron attached to the soma, divides into a few or
many branches, ending in terminal buttons
Terminal buttons
Located at the end of “twigs” that branch of from their ends
Rest against dendrites, Dendritic spines, the soma, or the axon of a
another neuron
Secrete neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitter
Causes postsynaptic neuron to be excited or inhibited
Affects the activity of the other cells with how the neuron
communicates
Myelin sheath
The insulting material that encases most large axons
Function of myelin is to insulate axons from the one another, prevent
the scrambling of messages
Increases the speed of action potential
Ion a positively or negatively charged particle, produced when many
substances dissolve in water
Action potential- an abrupt, short lived reversal in the electrical charge of an axon
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- releases a neurotransmitter
ion- positively or negatively charged particle
ion channel- a special protein molecule located in the membrane of the cell that
controls the exit or entry of ions
ion transporter- a special protein molecule located in the membrane of a cell that
actively transports ions into or out of the cell
quantitative information is represented by an axons rate of firing, such as bright
lights causing more action potentials, and not speed
presynaptic neuron
a neuron that sends a message
terminal buttons form synapses with and excite or inhibit another neuron
postsynaptic neuron
a neuron that receives a message
(terminal button and postsynaptic neuron don’t touch each other)
all or none law the principle that once an action potential is triggered in an
axon, it is propagated, without getting smaller, to the end of the axon
sensory neuron
a neuron that detects changes n the external or internal environment
and sends information about these changes to the central nervous
system
motor neuron
a neuron who’s terminal buttons form synapses with muscle fibres
when an action potential travels down its axon, the associated muscle
fibres move
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