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Chapter 8

PSYC 251 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Intelligence Quotient, Rote Learning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 251
Professor
Elizabeth Kelley
Chapter
8

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CHAPTER 8: INTELLIGENCE & ACADEMIC SKILLS
Video: Phonemic Awareness
Contributor to reading
Binet-Simon
Intellect tests should assess high-level abilities (problem solving, reasoning, judgment)
directly.
Successfully identified children with difficulty were highly correlated w their school
performance years later
Emphasis shifted to indv difference
6.1 Is Intelligence One Thing or Many?
Intelligence can be described at 3 levels of analysis: one thing, few things, many things
Intelligence as single trait
Single trait that influences all aspects of cognitive func
performance on all intellectual tasks is positively correlated
“peaa eated fato aalysis to pove g geeal itelligee
o influence ability to think &learn on all intellectual tasks
o Measure of g: overall scores on intelligence tests (correlated w school grades,
achievement test performance)
o G correlated with info-processing speed, speed of neural transmission, brain
volume.
Intelligence as few basic abilities
Cattell said two types: crystallized and fluid intelligence
Fluid: ability to think on the spot
o draw inferences and understand relations between new concepts
o adaptation to novel task, speed of processing, working memory, ability to control
attention
o fluid intelligence peaks at age 20-25 and slowly declines
Crystallized: factual knowledge about world
o Word meaning, provincial and territorial capitals, arithmetic problems
o Reflect long-term memory for prior experiences and related to verbal ability
o Con't to increase w age
o Crystallized dependent on fluid
o When children differ in experiences, more separable
tests of each type of intelligence correlate more highly with each others than with tests of
other type.
Brain areas active also differ: fluid= prefrontal cortex;
Thurstone: 7 primary mental abilities:
o Word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualization, numbering, rote
memory & perceptual speed
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Intelligence as numerous processes
Information-processing analyses of how people solve intelligence test items and how they
perform everyday intellectual tasks: read, write, arithmetic
E.g. Reeeig, peeivig, attedig, opehedig, eodig, assoiatig…et
Allow more precise specification of the mechanisms involved in intelligent behaviors.
Caoll’s Thee-Stratum Model of Intelligence (A Compromise/ proposed resolution)
Fluid intelligence is separable from crystalized intelligence
Top is G; middle is several moderately general abilities including both fluid and
crystallized; bottom are many specific processes.
G influence all moderate ones, both then influence processes.
6.2 What do intelligence tests measure?
Tests assess different aspects of ability
Must measure based on observable behaviours (by looking at ppl's actions on tasks that
require a variety of types of intelligence)
Critics: measure too little abilities; culturally biased, simplistic and ethically questionable.
Supporter: Better than alternative, valuable for making decisions like which child should
be given special educations. Less bias than psychology diagnosis.
The contents of intelligence tests.
Intelligence is reflected in different abilities at different ages.
Greatest success and widest application with children 5-6 yr
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC: for 6+.
Consistent with the 3 stratum framework. Yields overall score but also separate scores on
4 moderately general abilitiesverbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working
memory, processing speed.
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