Textbook Notes (369,054)
Canada (162,364)
Psychology (1,112)
PSYC 100 (335)
Chapter

Week 19 - Evolution, Heredity, and Behaviour

4 Pages
99 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Dr.Ada Mullett

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Description
Week 19 Notes – Heritability and Evolutionary Psychology What is the relationship between genes, heredity, and behaviour?  Analyse the adaptive function of romantic relationship, kin relationships, friendship, and dominance hierarchies  Describe common misunderstandings about evolution  Explain the sociobiological approach to altruism  Evolutionary Psychology: concerned with evolutionary underpinning of behaviour – adaptive significance and utility of behaviours  One Gene, One Disorder (OGOD): one gene is responsible for a disorder  Pedigree (one gene) studies ineffective for mental disorders since they are polygenic  Allelic association designs contribute to study of polygenic disorders and traits like intelligence and personality  Successful genes have the ability to reproduce 2  If population is homogenous environmentally, h will be higher, if it is genetically homogenous, heritability estimates will be lower  Genes that increase chance of survival (give additive variance) become more common (have increased gene dosage) until they no longer add to survival (non-additive variance)  Evolutionary Fitness: probability that the line of descent from an individual with a specific trait will not die out  Traits studied (intelligence, antisocial behaviour, personality) more affected by genetics  Genetics -> non shared environment -> shared environment  Our potential is largely determined by genetics, but environment determines particular behaviour  Developmental Psychology -> environment variance component, prenatal and postnatal environmental influences affecting individuals during lifetime  Evolutionary Psychology -> design of human nature, all behavioural characteristics that are product of natural selection in ancestral environments  Behavioural Genetics -> partition of individual differences into genetic and environmental variance components  Humans are not more evolved than other species  Genetic Load: reduction in overall evolutionary fitness for a population compared to what the population would have if all individuals had the most favoured genotype  Naturalistic Fallacy: determination of what should be based on what is natural; whatever is natural cannot be wrong and we must accept things as they are  Selectionist: belief that natural selection is the fundamental factor in evolution  Genetic Deterministic Fallacy: mistaken belief that if an organism evolves, evolution is determined by genes rather than an interaction of genes and environment  Facultative Behaviours: behaviours determined by immediate environment  Obligate Behaviours: develop largely independently of environment  Epigenetic modification (alternation in cellular inheritance not due to changes is DNA), means acquired characteristic could be inherited To what extent do genetics effect our attraction to specific individuals?  Adaptations must meet certain criteria: o Obviously designed to accomplish some biological purpose o Operates in a similar manner over cultures and time o Plausibly related to reproductive and survival success in ancestral environments o Not more simply explained on other grounds (by-product, pathology)  Criteria help us prove the existence of adaptations  Daly and Wilson argued that perceptions of self-interest evolved as a way to indicate expected gains or losses of fitness  Males are more attracted to females who show signs of fertility – an adaptation  Parental Investment: energy, time, resources, and opportunity cost associated with producing offspring  Sex that has the higher potential reproductive rate is under greater selection pressure to compete, directly or indirectly, for access to members of the opposite sex  Parental investment exemplified in elephant seals – females resist sex with non-dominant males  Polygyny: sexual behaviour in which one males mates with more than one female, while each female mates with only one male. Some males have many partners while most have none  Males more prone to take risks due to greater reproductive variance, related to competition for status, resources
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit