Textbook Notes (368,329)
Canada (161,823)
Psychology (1,112)
PSYC 100 (335)
Prof. (24)
Chapter

Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins

6 Pages
118 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Prof.
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins Science is a philosophy of knowledge that stems from two beliefs: Empiricism- knowledge comes from experience Determinism- all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect relationships -free will vs. determinism Zeitgeist-the reason why it took psychology until the late 1800s to become scientific -a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history Materialism- all living things are made of only physical matter Anthropometrics- Francis Galton Intelligence Test- Alfred Binet Influences from Physics Psychophysics-the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of the world -Gustav Fechner Influences from Evolutionary Theory Natural Selection-genetically inherited traits that contribute to survival and reproductive success are more likely to flourish within the breeding community -Charles Darwin -emotional expressions and other behaviors are resulted Influences from Medicine Clinical Psychology- diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychosomatic Medicine-Franz Mesmer -prolonged exposure to magnets could redirect the flow of metallic fluids in the body, therefore curing disease and insanity -rejected in the past, now accepted Hypnosis-Franz Mesmer -interested Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis-explains how behavior and personality are influenced by an unconscious process -Hypnosis cured hysterical paralysis- an individual loses feeling and control in a specific body part, despite the lack of neurological damage or disease -Sigmund Freud -Freud was on cocaine during a period of his career, and he didn’t conduct scientific experiments -> why is he so trusted? Brain Localization - Certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality characteristics Mid-1800s, there were two different views: Phrenology-Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim -brain consisted of 27 ‘organs,’ corresponding to mental traits and dispositions that could be detected by examining the surface of the skull Brain Injury-Paul Broca identified the ‘Broca’s area’; where speech production was localized, with the help of his patient Tan which is the only word he could speak, despite his ability to hear and understand perfectly -Karl Wernicke identified the ‘Wernicke’s area,’ where patients could speak in sentences that sounded normal but with unusual or made-up words Influence of Social Science Eminence -a combination of ability, morality, and achievement -Sir Francis Galton -explained psychological differences among people -developed a way to measure it -led to a movement where people with ‘good genes’ should mate with other people with good genes, and bad genes (criminals people with mental or physical disabilities) should be left out -nature vs. nurture Nature and Nurture Perspective- heredity and environment influence behavior and mental processes Biological Psychology- genetic, physiological, and brain basis for behavior Behavioral Genetics- determines how genes affect characteristics such as personality and intelligence Cognitive Neuroscience- relationships between thought and brain function Structuralism and Functionalism Introspection-Wilhelm Wundt -basic sensations are the mental ‘atoms’ that combined to form the molecules of experience Reaction Time-Wilhelm Wundt -mental activity is not instant, it requires a small amount of effort measured by the amount of time it takes to react Structuralism- analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic elements and to understand how these elements work together -Edward Titchener Functionalism- purpose and function of behavior and conscious experience The Rise of Behaviorism Behaviorism-studying only observable behavior with little or no reference to mental events or instincts -Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning-> dogs could learn to salivate to a tone if the tone has a history of sounding just prior to the delivery of food -rise of behaviorism in the US->John B. Watson, concentrated on marketing -B.F Skinner, and the ‘Skinner Box,’ rats were rewarded with food if they pushed the right lever -Watson’s and Skinner’s believed that if behavior is controlled by external rewards and the satisfaction of motivational drives, this leaves little room for free will Humanistic Psychology Emerges Humanistic Psychology-the unique aspects of each individual human, each person’s freedom to act, his or her rational thought, and the belief that humans are fundamentally different from other animals -Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow -believed that humans strive to develop a sense of self and are motivated to personally grow and fulfill their potential The Cognitive Revolution Forgetting Curves-most of what a person learns will be forgotten fast -Hermann Ebbinghaus Cultural Knowledge- involved in the interpretive process of memory Gestalt Psychology- psychologists need to focus on the whole of perception and experience, rather than its parts The invention of the comp
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit